Recommendations on Excavations

Recommendations on Excavations

Hardback

By (author) Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Geotechnik e.V./German Geotechnical Society, Translated by Alan Johnson

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  • Publisher: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn Verlag fur Architektur und technische Wissenschaften
  • Format: Hardback | 324 pages
  • Dimensions: 152mm x 214mm x 20mm | 520g
  • Publication date: 23 December 2013
  • Publication City/Country: Berlin
  • ISBN 10: 3433030367
  • ISBN 13: 9783433030363
  • Edition: 3, Revised
  • Edition statement: 3rd Revised edition
  • Illustrations note: 120 schwarz-weiße Abbildungen
  • Sales rank: 989,358

Product description

With the issue of these recommendations, which have the character of a standard, the "Building Excavations" working group of the German Geotechnics Association (DGGT) aims to provide assistance with the design and structural calculation of excavation support works. The introduction of the Eurocodes for building control purposes made necessary a revision of the previous edition of the recommendations to comply with the requirements of DIN EN 1997-1:2009 together with the national annex DIN 1997-1/NA:2010-12 and the supplementary regulations of DIN 1054:2010-12. All recommendations were thoroughly checked, revised where necessary and adapted to new knowledge. Chapter 10 "Building excavations in water" was substantially revised. Due to the progress of development of measurement instruments and the more stringent requirements, Chapter 14 "Instrumentation for the monitoring and supervision of building excavation support works" was formulated completely anew. The recommendations of the working group "Building Excavations" should be of assistance, - to simplify the design and structural calculation of excavation support works, - to harmonise loading assumptions and calculation procedures, - to ensure the structural stability of excavation support works and their individual elements and - to improve the cost-effectiveness of excavation support works.

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Author information

The working group 2.4 "Building Excavations" in the technical group "Earthworks and Foundation Engineering" of the German Geotechnics Association, Essen (DGGT), under the leadership of the chairman Prof. Dr.-Ing. A. Hettler, work on a voluntary basis.

Back cover copy

With the issue of these recommendations, which have the character of a standard, the "Building Excavations" working group of the German Geotechnics Association (DGGT) aims to provide assistance with the design and structural calculation of excavation support works.The introduction of the Eurocodes for building control purposes made necessary a revision of the previous edition of the recommendations to comply with the requirements of DIN EN 1997-1:2009-09 together with the national annex DIN 1997-1/NA:2010-12 and the supplementary regulations of DIN 1054:2010-12. All recommendations were thoroughly checked, revised where necessary and adapted to new knowledge. Chapter 10 "Building excavations in water" was substantially revised. Due to the progress of development of measurement instruments and the more stringent requirements, Chapter 14 "Instrumentation for the monitoring and supervision of building excavation support works" was formulated completely anew. The recommendations of the working group "Building Excavations" should be of assistance, - to simplify the design and structural calculation of excavationsupport works, - to harmonise loading assumptions and calculation procedures, - to ensure the structural stability of excavation support works and their individual elements and- to improve the cost-effectiveness of excavation support works.

Table of contents

Members of the Working Group for Excavations V Preface VII Notes for the User XI 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Engineering prerequisites for applying the Recommendations (R l) 1 1.2 Governing regulations (R 76) 1 1.3 Safety factor approach (R 77) 4 1.4 Limit states (R 78) 6 1.5 Support of retaining walls (R 67) 9 1.6 Planning and examination of excavations (R 106) 10 2 Analysis principles 11 2.1 Actions (R 24) 11 2.2 Determination of soil properties (R 2) 13 2.3 Earth pressure angle (R 89) 15 2.4 Partial safety factors (R 79) 17 2.5 General requirements for adopting live loads (R 3) 18 2.6 Live loads from road and rail traffic (R 55)20 2.7 Live loads from site traffic and site operations (R 56) 23 2.8 Live loads from excavators and lifting equipment (R 57) 24 3 Magnitude and distribution of earth pressure 29 3.1 Magnitude of earth pressure as a function of the selected construction method (R 8) 29 3.2 Magnitude of total active earth pressure lead without surcharge loads (R 4) 30 3.3 Distribution of active earth pressure without surcharges (R 5) 34 3.4 Magnitude of total active earth pressure lead from live loads (R 6) 37 3.5 Distribution of active earth pressure from live loads (R 7) 39 3.6 Superimposing earth pressure components with surcharges (R 71) 42 3.7 Determination of at-rest earth pressure (R 18) 44 3.8 Earth pressure in retreating states (R 68) 46 4 General stipulations for analysis 49 4.1 Stability analysis (R 81) 49 4.2 General information on analysis methods (R 11) 51 4.3 Determination and analysis of embedment depth (R 80) 54 4.4 Determination of action effects (R 82) 58 4.5 Modulus of subgrade reaction method (R 102) 61 4.6 Finite-element method (R 103) 66 4.7 Analysis of the vertical component of the mobilised passive earth pressure (R 9) 71 4.8 Analysis of the transfer of vertical forces into the subsurface (R 84) 73 4.9 Stability analyses for braced excavations in special cases (R 10) 76 4.10 Serviceability analysis (R 83) 78 4.11 Allowable simplifications in limit states GEO 2 or STR (R 104) 82 5 Analysis approaches for soldier pile walls 85 5.1 Determination of load models for soldier pile walls (R 12) 85 5.2 Pressure diagrams for supported soldier pile walls (R 69) 87 5.3 Soil reactions and passive earth pressure for soldier pile walls with free earth supports (R 14) 89 5.4 Fixed earth support for soldier pile walls (R 25) 91 5.5 Equilibrium of horizontal forces for soldier pile walls (R 15) 94 6 Analysis approaches for sheet pile walls and in-situ concrete walls 99 6.1 Determination of load models for sheet pile walls and in-situ concrete walls (R 16) 99 6.2 Pressure diagrams for supported sheet pile walls and in-situ concrete walls (R 70) 101 6.3 Ground reactions and passive earth pressure for sheet pile walls and in-situ concrete walls with free earth support (R 19) 103 6.4 Fixed earth support for sheet pile walls and in-situ concrete walls (R 26) 106 7 Anchored retaining walls 111 7.1 Magnitude and distribution of earth pressure for anchored retaining walls (R 42) 111 7.2 Analysis of force transfer from anchors to the ground (R 43) 112 7.3 Verification of stability at the lower failure plane (R 44) 113 7.4 Analysis of overall stability (R 45) 119 7.5 Measures to counteract deflections in anchored retaining walls (R 46) 122 8 Excavations with special ground plans 125 8.1 Excavations with circular plan (R 73) 125 8.2 Excavations with oval plan (R 74) 130 8.3 Excavations with rectangular plan (R 75) 137 9 Excavations adjacent to structures 143 9.1 Engineering measures for excavations adjacent to structures (R 20) 143 9.2 Analysis of retaining walls with active earth pressure for excavations adjacent to structures (R 21) 145 9.3 Active earth pressure for large distances to structures (R 28) 147 9.4 Active earth pressure for small distances to structures (R 29) 149 9.5 Analysis of retaining walls with increased active earth pressure (R 22) 151 9.6 Analysis of retaining walls with at-rest earth pressure (R 23) 155 9.7 Mutual influence of opposing retaining walls for excavations adjacent to structures (R 30) 159 10 Excavations in water 163 10.1 General remarks on excavations in water (R 58) 163 10.2 Flow forces (R 59) 165 10.3 Dewatered excavations (R 60) 166 10.4 Analysis of hydraulic heave safety (R 61) 168 10.5 Analysis of buoyancy safety (R 62) 172 10.6 Stability analysis of retaining walls in water (R 63) 179 10.7 Design and construction of excavations in water (R 64) 183 10.8 Water management (R 65) 186 10.9 Monitoring excavations in water (R 66) 188 11 Excavations in unstable rock mass 189 11.1 General recommendations for excavation in unstable rock mass (R 38) 189 11.2 Magnitude of rock mass pressure (R 39) 192 11.3 Distribution of rock pressure (R 40) 194 11.4 Bearing capacity of rock mass for support forces at the embedment depth (R 41) 195 12 Excavations in soft soils 197 12.1 Scope of Recommendations R 91 to R 101 (R 90) 197 12.2 Slopes in soft soils (R 91) 198 12.3 Wall types in soft soils (R 92) 200 12.4 Construction procedure in soft soils (R 93)204 12.5 Shear strength of soft soils (R 94) 208 12.6 Earth pressure on retaining walls in soft soils (R 95) 213 12.7 Ground reactions for retaining walls in soft soils (R 96) 217 12.8 Water pressure in soft soils (R 97) 222 12.9 Determination of embedment depths and action effects for excavations in soft soils (R 98) 228 12.10 Additional stability analyses for excavations in soft soils (R 99) 230 12.11 Water management for excavations in soft soils (R 100) 234 12.12 Serviceability of excavation structures in soft soils (R 101) 235 13 Analysis of the bearing capacity of structural elements 239 13.1 Material parameters and partial safety factors for structural element resistances (R 88) 239 13.2 Bearing capacity of soldier pile infilling (R 47) 240 13.3 Bearing capacity of soldier piles (R 48) 243 13.4 Bearing capacity of sheet piles (R 49) 246 13.5 Bearing capacity of in-situ concrete walls (R 50) 248 13.6 Bearing capacity of waling (R 51) 250 13.7 Bearing capacity of struts (R 52) 251 13.8 Bearing capacity of trench lining (R 53) 254 13.9 Bearing capacity of provisional bridges and excavation covers (R 54) 255 13.10 External bearing capacity of soldier piles, sheet pile walls and in-situ concrete walls (R 85) 257 13.11 Bearing capacity of tension piles and ground anchors (R 86) 259 14 Measurements and monitoring on excavation structures 261 14.1 Purpose of measurements and monitoring (R 31) 261 14.2 Measurands and measuring methods (R 32) 262 14.3 Measurement planning (R 33) 264 14.4 Location of measuring points (R 34) 266 14.5 Carrying out measurements and forwarding measurement results (R 35) 267 14.6 Evaluation and documentation of measurement results (R 36) 268 Annex 271 A 1: Relative density of cohesionless soils 271 A 2: Consistency of cohesive soils 272 A 3: Soil properties of cohesionless soils 273 A 4: Soil properties of cohesive soils 275 A 5: Geotechnical categories of excavations 277 A 6: Partial safety factors for geotechnical variables 279 A 7: Material properties and partial safety factors for concrete and reinforced concrete structural elements281 A 8: Material properties and partial safety factors for steel structural elements 284 A 9: Material properties and partial safety factors for wooden structural elements 285 A 10: Empirical values for skin friction and base resistance of sheet pile walls 286 Bibliography 287 Terms and notation 299 Geometrical variables 299 Subsoil and soil parameters 299 Earth pressure and passive earth pressure 300 Further loads, forces and action effects 301 Analyses using the partial safety factor approach 301 Miscellany 302 Recommendations in numerical order 303