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    The Reasons for the Commandments in Jewish Thought: From the Bible to the Renaissance (Reference Library of Jewish Intellectual History) (Hardback) By (author) Isaac Heinemann, Translated by Leonard Levin

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    DescriptionThis classic work by early-20th-century Jewish humanist and scholar Isaac Heinemann surveys the crucial phases of Jewish thought concerning correct conduct as codified in the commandments. Heinemann provides his own systematic insights about the intellectual, emotional, pedagogical, and pragmatic reasoning advanced by the major Jewish thinkers. Volume I, translated here for the first time, covers Jewish thinkers from the Bible, rabbis and Hellenistic philosophers through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, including Saadiah, Halevi, Maimonides, Albo and many others. Heinemann addresses such questions as: what were the Biblical, rabbinic, medieval, and modern rationales offered for the commandments in the course of Jewish thought?


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    Title
    The Reasons for the Commandments in Jewish Thought
    Subtitle
    From the Bible to the Renaissance
    Authors and contributors
    By (author) Isaac Heinemann, Translated by Leonard Levin
    Physical properties
    Format: Hardback
    Number of pages: 240
    Width: 156 mm
    Height: 234 mm
    Thickness: 20 mm
    Weight: 513 g
    Language
    English
    ISBN
    ISBN 13: 9781934843048
    ISBN 10: 1934843040
    Classifications

    BIC E4L: PHI
    Nielsen BookScan Product Class 3: S2.1
    B&T Merchandise Category: GEN
    B&T Book Type: NF
    B&T Modifier: Region of Publication: 01
    B&T Modifier: Subject Development: 01
    BIC subject category V2: HP, HRJ
    BISAC V2.8: PHI022000
    BISAC Merchandising Theme: ET120
    Ingram Theme: ETHN/JUDAIC
    Ingram Subject Code: RJ
    Ingram Theme: RELI/JUDAIC
    Libri: I-RJ
    BISAC V2.8: REL040030
    B&T Modifier: Academic Level: 02
    B&T General Subject: 610
    BISAC V2.8: REL051000
    B&T Modifier: Subject Development: 35
    Warengruppen-Systematik des deutschen Buchhandels: 15200
    BISAC V2.8: SOC049000, REL006630, REL040040
    DC22: 296.18
    LC subject heading:
    DC22: 296.1/8
    LC classification: BM520.7 .H4213 2008
    Ingram Theme: INDS/JEWSTD
    Thema V1.0: QRAB, QRJ, QD, QRAX
    Illustrations note
    black & white illustrations
    Publisher
    Academic Studies Press
    Imprint name
    Academic Studies Press
    Publication date
    30 May 2008
    Publication City/Country
    Brighton
    Author Information
    Isaac Heinemann (1876-1957) was one of the leading Jewish humanists and scholars of the early 20th century. His career spanned the golden age of Jewish scholarship in central Europe and the rise of Jewish studies in modern Israel. He was a leading authority in Hellenistic and rabbinic studies, writing major studies of Philo of Alexandria and the rabbinic lore (agada).
    Table of contents
    The Reason for the Mitzvot . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. xiiAuthor's Preface to First Edition (1942) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. xiiiTranslator's Preface .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. xvChapter 1The Nature of the Question . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1Reasons not to engage in such an inquiry .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1Reasons Such Inquiry is Mandatory .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3Chapter 2The Biblical View .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5The sources of correct behavior prior to Sinai:God's will and human conscience .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5Even "irrational" commands do not oppose objective morality . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6Conscience Is Important Even After Sinai .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7Types of Reasons in the Torah: Appeal to Authority .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8Understanding the Objective of a Mitzvah. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9Connection to Other Mitzvot or Principles. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9Emotional Reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10Where The Torah is Silent Concerning Reasons . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12The Torah Is Reticent About the Religious Value of the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12Investigation of the Reasons XIts Basis in the Torah .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14Chapter 3The Views of the Rabbis. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .151. Irrational from the Individual's Perspective .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .152. Rational from the Lawmaker's Perspective . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .18The reasons for the hukkim are hidden .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 19The Torah Does Not Distinguish Between Rational and Irrational Mitzvot .. .. .. 21Why did the Rabbis Distinguish Between Rational and Non-rationalCommandments?. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 213. Methodological Questions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .23Is it fi tting to seek out intellectual reasons for the mitzvot? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23Is it permissible to derive from the reasons for the mitzvot conclusions forhalakha? . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 244. The Reasons for the Mitzvot According to the Rabbis . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .25Measure for Measure . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26Symbolic Reasons . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26The Mitzvot Infl uence Our Behavior .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27Expound Them and Receive Reward . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28Chapter 4The Views of the Hellenistic Jews .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .34Each Person a Supreme Authority on the Mitzvot's Value. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 34Irrational Reasons Not Valued .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 35The Greek Autonomous Ethic Infl uenced the Hellenists . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36National Conservatism as a Reason. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37"Do Not Separate From the Community!" . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 38"Natural Law" vs. the Laws of the Legislators .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 38The Method of the Extreme Hellenists .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39Philo's Method .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 40The Torah's Laws Similar to the Laws of the Universe . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 40Ethical Explanations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41Josephus on Theocracy . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 42Philo's Social Explanation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 43Utilitarian Reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 44Motivations of the Hellenists and the Rabbis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 44Pros and Cons of the Hellenistic explanation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 45Did Greek Culture Impoverish their Jewish culture? . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 46Chapter 5Views of the Medieval Philosophers. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .47General Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 47Three Medieval "Schools" and Their Interaction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 47Disagreements among the Schools .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 48Chapter 6Saadia Gaon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .51The Different Tasks of Human Reason . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 51Intellect can help explain the mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 52The Rational and "Hortative" (Shim'iyot) Mitzvot . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 52Many Hortative Commandments Have Plausible Reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 53The Virtues of Saadia's Method . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54The Drawbacks of Saadia's Method. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 55Saadia favors utilitarian reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 55Chapter 7Bah sya ben Joseph Ibn Pakudah. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .57The purpose of Duties of the Heart . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 57The Heart XSource for Performing the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 58The Levels of Mitzvah Performers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 58The Propadeutic Value of the Written Torah .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 59The Value of the Torah for the Educated Also. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 60The Commandments of the Limbs Attest to the Commandments of the Heart. .. 60Religiosity of the Heart and Fulfi llment of the Commandments .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62How does Bahya's outlook differ from Saadia's? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62Chapter 8Rabbi Judah Halevi .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .65Purpose of the Kuzari .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 65The Mitzvot Seek to Train Us for Coming Closer to God. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 65Mitzvot Necessary to Arrive at the Top Rank .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 66To reach God, perform the divine commands! .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 66Halevi's Approach is Not Magical .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 67Our Reason Cannot Understand All the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 68History Testifi es to their Value .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 69Life of Body and Life of Soul Parallel .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 69Psychological Explanations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 70God of Religion vs. the Metaphysical God . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72The Emotional Experience . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73The "Practical-Religious" Value in Halevi .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73Halevi's Personality. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 74Chapter 9Abraham Ibn Ezra .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .76The Value of Knowing the Reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 76Utilitarian and Ethical Reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 77Symbolic Reasons . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 77Secret Relations Between Mitzvot and the Forces of Nature . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 78Mystical Arithmetic. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 79Astrological Explanations and Their Limitation. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 79The Arrangement of the Temple and Its Affairs. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 81Toward an Understanding of the Esoteric Explanations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 82Mitzvot that seek to preserve racial purity. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 82Ibn Ezra's Common Cause with the Jewish Hellenists .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83Ibn Ezra XMystic of Science .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83Chapter 10Abraham Ibn Daud .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .85Both the "rational" and "hortative" mitzvot are eternal .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 85The mitzvot as acknowledgment of our gratitude .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 86Interpreting the Ten Commandments .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 86Ranking the "hortative" mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 87In praise of Abraham for not second-guessing God .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 88"Weakness" of the hortative mitzvot: Ibn Daud's relation to Saadia and themodern rationalists. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 88Why Ibn Daud Preferred the Rational to the Hortative Mitzvot. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90Why, if all mitzvot are valid, do they differ in rank? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 91Similarities and differences in Bahya's and Ibn Daud's rankings .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 92Ibn Daud, Halevi and Ibn Ezra .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 93Chapter 11Maimonides .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .95The Different Points of View in His Various Books . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 951. Is it possible and permitted to explain the mitzvot? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .95Permitted to explain the mitzvot, but not to reject them .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96Those who forbid us to consider the reasons for the mitzvot have erred. .. .. .. .. 97Caution is required in investigating the reasons for the mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 98Impossible to Explain All the Details .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 992. The Foundations of Maimonides' Explanation . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..100The Torah's Intention: Perfection of Soul and Perfection of Body . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100Three Assumptions for Explaining the Narratives and Precepts ofthe Torah (It Has Consideration for Non-Intellectuals Also). .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 101Examples for the Above Principle .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 103Joy in the mitzvot that Maimonides showed in his life and works, vs.what he says in certain places .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104Tensions with regard to actions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104Tensions with Regard to Feeling .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 105The relation between theoretical and practical man .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1073. The explanation of the Commandments .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..107Explanations that Maimonides rejects .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 108Casual supports (asmakhta) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 108Utilitarian Reasons . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 109Some of the Moral Explanations are Social .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 109(1) Commemorating historical facts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 110(2) Cosmological explanations. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 111(3) To Inculcate the Fear of Heaven . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 111(4) To Distance Us from Idol Worship .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 111The Sacrifi ces: Weaning Us from Idolatry .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 113His Proofs .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 113Maimonides, Ibn Daud and Modern Rationalists . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 114Summary. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..116More Than Just Intellectualism .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 116A Comprehensive, Many-Sided Approach .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 116Three Kinds of "Believers," Two in Error .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 117Advantage of all the mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 118Why is only the Torah called a divine law? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 118Chapter 12Gersonides .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..120Comprehensive Explanation for All Narratives and Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 120Hygienic Reasons. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 121Many mitzvot act on our moral qualities. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 121The reasons for the mitzvah of the Sabbath .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 122Gersonides' critique of Maimonides on the sacrifi ces. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 123The Reasons for the Implements of the Sanctuary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 125Reasons for the Priesthood. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 126Chapter 13Hasdai Crescas . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..127Defense of the Torah against Christian attacks .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 127The generation of the wilderness was not spiritually inferior .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 127Original Sin; salvation through circumcision and the Akedah .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 128How are we redeemed through these two commandments? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 129The salvifi c power of all the mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 129The love of God is the pivot of faith .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 130Why so many mitzvot? . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 131Primary purposes . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 131Intermediate purposes .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 131Our Eternal Lives Are Not Dependent on the Acquisition of Correct Opinions 132Rather: The Ultimate Purpose of the Mitzvot of the Torah is Loveand Fear of God .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 133How Does the Torah Educate Toward Love of God? . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 134The Reasons for Various Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 134Chapter 14Joseph Albo. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..141The Reasons for the Sacrifi ces and Sabbath .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 141The Three Kinds of Laws and Their Value . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 141Everything Goes According to the Heart's Intention .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 142Judaism Surpasses Christianity in Its Appreciation of the Heart's Intention. .. 143Practical value realized from keeping the mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 143Levels of Feeling Connected to Fulfi llment of the Commandments .. .. .. .. .. .. 144The Relationship Between Religious Emotion and Fulfi llment of the Mitzvot 145Not by Intellectual Understanding but Rather by Reverence forGod Do We Earn the World to Come .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 146What is the difference between Crescas and Albo? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 147The Value of Albo's Method . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 148Chapter 15Don Isaac Abravanel. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..149Categories of the Torah's Commandments .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 149There is an Intrinsic Value to the Mitzvot of the Torah . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 149There is No Uniform Purpose for All of the Mitzvot of the Torah. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 150Abravanel Objects to Utilitarian Reasons for the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 151Abravanel is Sparing with Social Reasons for the Torah's Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 151Abravanel's Method of Interpreting the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 152The Reasons for the Sacrifi ces .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 152The Reasons for the Shofar. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 154The Pedagogic Value of the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 155Ethical-Religious Explanations of the Torah's Commandments. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 156The Religious Infl uence of the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 157All the Mitzvot Speak to Us in Allusions and Symbols. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 157Chapter 16Summary of the Medieval Thinkers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..159The Difference Between the Hellenistic and Medieval Thinkers' Explanationof the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 159Balance of Autonomous and Heteronomous Reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 159The Creator's Wisdom is Recognized in His Mitzvot . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 161We Must Observe the Mitzvot Even If Their Reasons are Hidden From Us .. .. 162The Love of God, Not Pursuit of Happiness, Enables Us toFulfi ll the Creator's Mitzvot. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 163The Individualistic Direction in Explanation of the Mitzvot . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 163Chapter 17Principal Conclusions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..165(A) A Systematic Arrangement of the Answers to the Problem .. .. .. .. .. ..166The Differences Between the Two Types of Reasons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 166The Apologetic Factor .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 167The Theoretical Factor .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 168The Practical Factor . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 169Different Views Concerning the Reasons for the Commandments .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 169Consequences of the Mitzvot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 171(B) What Can We Learn from the Classic Jewish Thinkers'Explanation of the Reasons for the Mitzvot? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..176The Subjective Factor . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 176The Value of the Explanations. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 178The Apologetic Method .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 179The Sociological Method . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 180Abbreviations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..184Notes .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..185Index .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..196