Readings in Ancient HistoryPaperback
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- Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc
- Format: Paperback | 592 pages
- Dimensions: 160mm x 231mm x 25mm | 794g
- Publication date: 29 May 2011
- Publication City/Country: Belmont, CA
- ISBN 10: 0495913030
- ISBN 13: 9780495913030
- Edition: 7, Revised
- Edition statement: 7th Revised edition
- Illustrations note: black & white illustrations
This primary source reader covers the entire span of ancient history, providing helpful editorial material and carefully selected sources to promote learning.
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Table of contents
Each Part concludes with selected background reading. Part I: NEAR EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS. Foundation Epics. 1. The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Sumerian Heroic Age: A. The Quest of Gilgamesh: "who is most splendid among the heroes?"; B. The Epic of the Flood: The Babylonian Noah. 2. Hebrew Bible: Earliest Relations Between Humans and God. Early Society, Justice and Moral Order. 3. The Shamash Hymns: Moral Religion and Social Justice. 4. The Laws of Hammurabi: "To further the welfare of the people." 5. The Instruction of Ptah-hotep: Early Material Values in Egypt. Social and Work Life. 6. Work Songs from Ancient Egypt: Voices of Ordinary Men and Women. 7. School Days in Sumer: "all the fine points of the scribal art." Divine Worship, Kingship and Nation. 8. Unas Pyramid Incantations: The Afterlife of a Pharaoh. 9. Hymn to the Aton: Religious Reform and Monotheism. 10. God and the Early Hebrews: A. The Patriarchs; B. Bondage and Deliverance; C The Sinai Covenant; D. The People Demand a King: "To govern us like all the nations"; E. The United Kingdom of Israel: "A great name, like the name of the great ones of the earth"; F. Jeremiah: Prophet of the New Covenant. War and International Diplomacy. 11. Amarna Letters: a Brotherhood of Kings. 12. An Egyptian-Hittite Treaty: Imperialism and International Diplomacy. 13. Sea Peoples' Inscriptions: Egypt and Its Neighbors Under Ramses III: A. Ramses III Issuing Equipment to His Troops for the Campaign Against the Sea Peoples; B. Ramses III on the March to Zahi Against the Sea Peoples; C. Ramses III in Battle with the Land Forces of the Sea Peoples. 14. Prism of Sennacherib: An Assyrian King's Wars. Persia: the Last Ancient Near Eastern Empire. 15. A Conquering Messiah: Cyrus the Great and the Persian Empire: A. Cyrus' Cylinder: The Chosen of Marduk; B. Cyrus as the Messiah: Return of the Jews and the Rebuilding of Jerusalem. Part II: GREEK CIVILIZATION: ANCIENT GREECE. Foundation Stories: Gods, Heroes and the Individual. 16. Homer: The Greek Heroic Age. 17. Hesiod: Changing Times and the Moral Order. 18. Early Greek Lyric Poetry: Individualism Emergent: A. Sappho; B. Theognis. 19. Pindar's Odes to Athletic Victors: The Heroic Ideal. Archaic Greek City-States, Colonization and Tyranny. 20. Herodotus: The Foundation of Cyrene in Libya. 21. Lycurgus: The Spartan Military Machine. 22. Solon: Economic and Political Reforms at Athens. 23. Pisistratus: The Rise of Tyranny at Athens. War and Peace in the Classical Age. 24. Herodotus: Greece Saved from Persian Conquest. 25. Pericles' Funeral Oration: An Idealized View of Athenian. Democracy and Its Empire. 26. The Old Oligarch: A Critical View of Athenian Democracy and Its Empire. 27. Thucydides, History: The Statesman's Handbook: A. The Revolt of Mitylene: "Democracy is incapable of empire"; B. The Corcyrean Revolution: The Psychology of Civil War; C. The Melian Dialogue: "The strong do what they can and the weak submit"; D. The Sicilian Expedition: "Most glorious to the victors, most calamitous to the conquered." Society, Culture and Intellectual Life. 28. Lysias, The Murder of Eratosthenes: An Athenian Woman's Life: "...I began to trust her..." 29. Euripides, Medea: Greek Tragic Vision of Women and the City. 30. Socrates: Philosophy Shifts from Nature to Man: A. The Socratic Method: "The unexamined life is not worth living"; B. Aristophanes, Clouds: Socrates as Troublemaker: "You will now believe in no god but those we believe in..."; C. The Apology of Socrates: "I am that gadfly which God has attached to the state." 31. Plato: "Turning the eye of the soul toward the light": A. The Theory of Ideas: The Allegory of the Cave; B. The Spiritual Life: Dualism of Body and Soul. 32. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics: "The philosophy of human affairs": A. The Subject of the Nicomachean Ethics: "The good for man"; B. The Definition of Happiness; C. Intellectual and Moral Virtue. 33. Aristotle, Politics: "A state exists for the sake of the good life": A. Nature, Origin, and Purpose of the State; B. Good and Bad Constitutions; C. The Ideal State: Its True Object; D. The Ideal State: Education; E. The Practicable State: The Best Constitution; F. The Practicable State: Causes of Revolution; G. The Practicable State: Preserving Constitutions. Late Classical Greece. 34. Demosthenes Versus Isocrates: "Nationalism" Versus "Internationalism": A. Demosthenes, First Philippic: "Athenians, when will you act as becomes you!"; B. Isocrates, Address to Philip: "A champion powerful in action." Part III: HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION. From Warrior Kings to Divine Rulers 35. Arrian, History of Alexander the Great: Conqueror and Reformer: "We are free men, and they are slaves..." 36. Demetrius: A God Among Men: A. Plutarch, Life of Demetrius; B. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet: Ithylphallic Hymn in Honor of Demetrius. 37. Euhemerus of Messene, Sacred History: How Men Became Gods. Hellenistic Rulers and Their Subjects. 38. Antigonus the One-Eyed and Scepsis: "that Antigonus may receive honours worthy of his achievements...": A. Letter of Antigonus to Scepsis; B. Scepsis' Response to Antigonus' Letter. 39. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet: Hellenistic Pomp and Circumstance: "What monarchy ... has ever been so rich in gold?" Hellenistic Culture, Economy and Thought. 40. Rosetta Stone Inscription: "Ptolemy the everliving, beloved of Ptah." 41. Papyri on Greek and Non-Greek Interactions: "I do not know how to speak Greek." 42. Oil Monopoly of Ptolemy II Philadelphus: Toward a Command Economy: "...exact payment from them..." 43. Hellenistic Philosophy: Greek Thought in a Wider World: A. The Cynic Counterculture: "may I consider the universe my house"; B. Stoics and their Worldview: "the wise man does all things well." 44. Hellenistic Science: Archimedes The Limits of Hellenism. 45. Polybius, Histories: Rome and the Hellenistic Kings: "he drew a circle round Antiochus..." 46. First and Second Maccabees: Jewish Responses to Hellenization: A. First Maccabees: Jewish Welcome Roman Power: "they were very strong ..."; B. Second Maccabees: "The altar was covered with abominable offerings..." 47. Plutarch, The Life of Antony: The Portrait of Queen Cleopatra: "... putting her greatest confidence in herself ..." Part IV: THE ROMAN REPUBLIC. Traditions on Early Rome. 48. Livy: The Early Romans: "The kind of lives our ancestors lived": A. Preface: "The greatest nation in the world"; B. The Rape of Lucretia: Monarchy Abolished; C. Horatius at the Bridge: "A noble piece of work." Rome as a Rising Power. 49. Livy: The Foreign Policy of the Roman Republic: "One people in the world which would fight for others' liberties." 50. Polybius: The Constitution of the Roman Republic: "it is impossible to find a better." 51. Cato the Elder: Traditional Standards in a New Age. 52. Pseudo-Cicero: How to Get Elected to Public Office in Rome: "You must take pains to solicit the votes of all these men ..." Crises and Transformations. 53. Tiberius Gracchus: The Republic at the Crossroads. 54. Gaius Gracchus: The Republic at the Crossroads, Continued. 55. The Social War: Rome's Italian Allies in Revolt: "they considered it no longer tolerable." 56. The Revolt of Spartacus: The Dangers of a Slave Society: "... the slaves leaped and began to fight..." 57. The Conspiracy of Catiline: The Roman Republic in Decay. Intellectual Life and Culture. 58. Lucretius: Epicurean Philosophy at Rome. 59. Cicero: Advocate of Property Rights, Greek Philosophy, and the Status Quo. Late Republic and the Rise of Autocracy. 60. Appian: First Roman Civil War and Proscriptions: "... destruction, death, confiscation, and wholesale extermination." 61. Julius Caesar: The Man and the Statesman: "He doth bestride the narrow world like a colossus." 62. Cicero as Champion of Liberty: The Second Philippic: "An eloquent man who loved his country well." Part V: THE ROMAN EMPIRE. Foundations of the Principate. 63. Augustus: The Achievements of the Deified Augustus: "... attained supreme power by universal consent." 64. Augustus' Reconstruction of the Roman World: Contrasting Estimates: A. Dio Cassius: The "True Democracy" of the Roman Empire; B. Tacitus, Annals: "It was really from a lust for power"; C. Vergil, Aeneid: A Roman National Epic: "behold this nation." Romans and Non-Romans in the Pax Romana. 65. The Pax Romana: Divergent Views: A. Tacitus, Histories: "By the prosperity and order of eight hundred years has this fabric of empire been consolidated"; B. Tacitus, Agricola: "They create a desert and call it peace"; C. Aelius Aristides, Oration on Rome: "How is this form of government not beyond every democracy?" 66. Tacitus: The Early Germans. 67. Claudius' Letter to the Alexandrians: Greeks, Jews and Romans: "a solicitude of very long standing for the city." 68. Rebels Against Rome: A. Tacitus, Annals: The Rebellion of Boudicca in Britain: "This is what I, a woman, plan to do!"; B. Josephus, History of the Jewish War: Resistance is Futile: "So there is no refuge left except to make God your ally." 69. Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan: Rome as Benevolent Ruler: "worthy of ... the splendor of your reign." Women, Family, and Roman Slave Society. 70. The Legal Status of Roman Women. 71. Juvenal, Satires: The Emancipated Women of the Early Empire. 72. Aspects of Roman Slavery: A. Varro, On Agriculture: Setting Up a Slave Plantation: "Slaves should be neither cowed nor high-spirited"; B. Columella, On Agriculture: Masters and Slaves: "Their unending toil was lightened by such friendliness ..."; C. Seneca, Moral Epistle: "...see in him a freeborn man..."; D. Petronius, Satyricon: Banquet of Trimalchio, Ex-Slave and Self-Made Millionaire. Philosophy and Religion. 73. Marcus Aurelius, Meditations: "Either atoms or Providence." 74. Apuleius, Golden Ass: The Cult of Isis and Religious Syncretism. Part VI: EARLY CHRISTIANITY AND LATE ANTIQUITY. Christian Origins. 75. The New Testament: The Beginnings of Christianity: A. The Teachings of Jesus: "Turn away from your sins! The Kingdom of heaven is near!"--1. John the Baptist and the Sermon on the Mount, 2. Parables of the Kingdom, 3. Jesus' Instructions to His Disciples; B. The Work of Paul: "Jews and Gentiles...are all one in union with Christ Jesus."--1. Paul's Mission: Failure at Athens, Success at Corinth, 2. Paul's Epistles to Christian Communities. Christianity and Its Reception in the Roman World. 76. Christianity and Greco-Roman Thought: "Whatever has been uttered aright by any men in any place belongs to us Christians": A. Justin Martyr, Apology: "Those who lived according to reason are Christians"; B. Tatian, Address to the Greeks: "do not resolve your gods and myths into allegories"; C. Tertullian, Against Heretics: "What is there in common between Athens and Jerusalem?" 77. Christians and Their Persecutors: "Amid the ruins of a falling age, our spirit remains erect": A. Pliny, Letters on Christians: Trajan's Enlightened Policy; B. Martyrdom of Polycarp of Smyrna: "I am a Christian"; C. Tertullian, Apology: A Christian View of the Persecutions. A New Roman Empire. 78. The Reforms of Diocletian: "...by whose virtue and foreseeing care all is being reshaped for the better": A. Administrative Reorganization: "This man...overturned the Roman Empire"; B. Edict of Maximum Prices: Fighting Inflation in the Late Roman Empire; C. Diocletian's Edict of Persecution Against Christians: "There are profane persons here..." 79. Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors: "This man ... overturned the Roman Empire." 80. Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of the Emperor Constantine: "Serving God ... with his every action." 81. Athanasius, Life of Anthony: Ascetic as Holy Man and Celebrity: "...they saw that even demons feared Antony." 82. John Chrysostom, On the Priesthood: Ascetic as Bishop: "... the exceeding sanctity of this office ..." 83. The Theodosian Code: Legislating a Christian Roman Empire. New Crises and "Fall of the Roman Empire." 84. Jerome, Letter: Lament on Rome: "The world sinks into ruin ..." 85. Augustine, City of God: The Unimportance of the Earthly City: "The fire which makes gold shine makes chaff smoke." 86. Augustine, Confessions: "How did I burn to fly from earthly things to You." 87. Salvian of Marseille, On the Governance of God: "Where or in whom are evils so great, except among the Romans?"