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Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics

Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics

Paperback

By (author) Michael J. Moran, By (author) Howard N. Shapiro, By (author) Daisie D. Boettner, By (author) Margaret B. Bailey

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  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Format: Paperback | 952 pages
  • Dimensions: 218mm x 276mm x 32mm | 1,801g
  • Publication date: 25 November 2011
  • Publication City/Country: Chichester
  • ISBN 10: 0470918012
  • ISBN 13: 9780470918012
  • Edition: 7
  • Edition statement: 7th International student edition
  • Illustrations note: Illustrations (some col.)
  • Sales rank: 177,863

Product description

This leading text in the field maintains its engaging, readable style while presenting a broader range of applications that motivate engineers to learn the core thermodynamics concepts. Two new coauthors help update the material and integrate engaging, new problems. Throughout the chapters, they focus on the relevance of thermodynamics to modern engineering problems. Many relevant engineering based situations are also presented to help engineers model and solve these problems.

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Table of contents

1 Getting Started: Introductory Concepts and Definitions 1 1.1 Using Thermodynamics 2 1.2 Defining Systems 2 1.3 Describing Systems and Their Behavior 5 1.4 Measuring Mass, Length, Time, and Force 8 1.5 Specific Volume 10 1.6 Pressure 11 1.7 Temperature 15 1.8 Engineering Design and Analysis 19 1.9 Methodology for Solving Thermodynamics Problems 21 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 23 2 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics 31 2.1 Reviewing Mechanical Concepts of Energy 32 2.2 Broadening Our Understanding of Work 36 2.3 Broadening Our Understanding of Energy 47 2.4 Energy Transfer by Heat 48 2.5 Energy Accounting: Energy Balance for Closed Systems 52 2.6 Energy Analysis of Cycles 64 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 68 3 Evaluating Properties 80 3.1 Getting Started 81 Evaluating Properties: General Considerations 82 3.2 p - v - T Relation 82 3.3 Studying Phase Change 86 3.4 Retrieving Thermodynamic Properties 88 3.5 Evaluating Pressure, Specific Volume, and Temperature 89 3.6 Evaluating Specific Internal Energy and Enthalpy 95 3.7 Evaluating Properties Using Computer Software 98 3.8 Applying the Energy Balance Using Property Tables and Software 100 3.9 Introducing Specific Heats cv and cp 105 3.10 Evaluating Properties of Liquids and Solids 105 3.11 Generalized Compressibility Chart 109 Evaluating Properties Using the Ideal Gas Model 115 3.12 Introducing the Ideal Gas Model 115 3.13 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 118 3.14 Applying the Energy Balance Using Ideal Gas Tables, Constant Specific Heats, and Software 122 3.15 Polytropic Process Relations 129 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 131 4 Control Volume Analysis Using Energy 146 4.1 Conservation of Mass for a Control Volume 147 4.2 Forms of the Mass Rate Balance 149 4.3 Applications of the Mass Rate Balance 151 4.4 Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume 155 4.5 Analyzing Control Volumes at Steady State 158 4.6 Nozzles and Diffusers 161 4.7 Turbines 164 4.8 Compressors and Pumps 167 4.9 Heat Exchangers 171 4.10 Throttling Devices 176 4.11 System Integration 179 4.12 Transient Analysis 182 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 192 5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 212 5.1 Introducing the Second Law 213 5.2 Statements of the Second Law 216 5.3 Identifying Irreversibilities 219 5.4 Interpreting the Kelvin-Planck Statement 224 5.5 Applying the Second Law to Thermodynamic Cycles 225 5.6 Second Law Aspects of Power Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs 225 5.7 Second Law Aspects of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs 228 5.8 The Kelvin and International Temperature Scales 230 5.9 Maximum Performance Measures for Cycles Operating Between Two Reservoirs 234 5.10 Carnot Cycle 239 5.11 Clausius Inequality 241 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 243 6 Using Entropy 255 6.1 Entropy-A System Property 256 6.2 Retrieving Entropy Data 257 6.3 Introducing the T dS Equations 260 6.4 Entropy Change of an Incompressible Substance 262 6.5 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas 263 6.6 Entropy Change in Internally Reversible Processes of Closed Systems 266 6.7 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems 269 6.8 Directionality of Processes 277 6.9 Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes 282 6.10 Rate Balances for Control Volumes at Steady State 283 6.11 Isentropic Processes 291 6.12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Turbines, Nozzles, Compressors, and Pumps 297 6.13 Heat Transfer and Work in Internally Reversible, Steady-State Flow Processes 305 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 309 7 Exergy Analysis 329 7.1 Introducing Exergy 330 7.2 Conceptualizing Exergy 331 7.3 Exergy of a System 332 7.4 Closed System Exergy Balance 338 7.5 Exergy Rate Balance for Control Volumes at Steady State 347 7.6 Exergetic (Second Law) Efficiency 359 7.7 Thermoeconomics 365 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 372 8 Vapor Power Systems 390 8.1 Modeling Vapor Power Systems 391 8.2 Analyzing Vapor Power Systems-Rankine Cycle 392 8.3 Improving Performance-Superheat and Reheat 405 8.4 Improving Performance-Regenerative Vapor Power Cycle 411 8.5 Other Vapor Cycle Aspects 422 8.6 Case Study: Exergy Accounting of a Vapor Power Plant 424 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 432 9 Gas Power Systems 444 Internal Combustion Engines 445 9.1 Introducing Engine Terminology 445 9.2 Air-Standard Otto Cycle 448 9.3 Air-Standard Diesel Cycle 453 9.4 Air-Standard Dual Cycle 457 Gas Turbine Power Plants 461 9.5 Modeling Gas Turbine Power Plants 461 9.6 Air-Standard Brayton Cycle 462 9.7 Regenerative Gas Turbines 472 9.8 Regenerative Gas Turbines with Reheat and Intercooling 476 9.9 Gas Turbines for Aircraft Propulsion 486 9.10 Combined Gas Turbine-Vapor Power Cycle 491 9.11 Ericsson and Stirling Cycles 497 Compressible Flow Through Nozzles and Diffusers 498 9.12 Compressible Flow Preliminaries 499 9.13 Analyzing One-Dimensional Steady Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers 503 9.14 Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers of Ideal Gases with Constant Specific Heats 510 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 518 10 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems 534 10.1 Vapor Refrigeration Systems 535 10.2 Analyzing Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 537 10.3 Refrigerant Properties 545 10.4 Cascade and Multistage Vapor-Compression Systems 546 10.5 Absorption Refrigeration 548 10.6 Heat Pump Systems 550 10.7 Gas Refrigeration Systems 552 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 558 11 Thermodynamic Relations 568 11.1 Using Equations of State 569 11.2 Important Mathematical Relations 575 11.3 Developing Property Relations 579 11.4 Evaluating Changes in Entropy, Internal Energy, and Enthalpy 585 11.5 Other Thermodynamic Relations 594 11.6 Constructing Tables of Thermodynamic Properties 601 11.7 Generalized Charts for Enthalpy and Entropy 605 11.8 p - v - T Relations for Gas Mixtures 612 11.9 Analyzing Multicomponent Systems 618 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 629 12 Ideal Gas Mixture and Psychrometric Applications 642 Ideal Gas Mixtures: General Considerations 643 12.1 Describing Mixture Composition 643 12.2 Relating p , V , and T for Ideal Gas Mixtures 647 12.3 Evaluating U , H , S , and Specific Heats 648 12.4 Analyzing Systems Involving Mixtures 650 Psychrometric Applications 664 12.5 Introducing Psychrometric Principles 664 12.6 Psychrometers: Measuring the Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures 675 12.7 Psychrometric Charts 676 12.8 Analyzing Air-Conditioning Processes 678 12.9 Cooling Towers 694 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 697 13 Reacting Mixtures and Combustion 710 Combustion Fundamentals 711 13.1 Introducing Combustion 711 13.2 Conservation of Energy-Reacting Systems 720 13.3 Determining the Adiabatic Flame Temperature 732 13.4 Fuel Cells 736 13.5 Absolute Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics 738 Chemical Exergy 746 13.6 Introducing Chemical Exergy 747 13.7 Standard Chemical Exergy 750 13.8 Exergy Summary 755 13.9 Exergetic (Second Law) Efficiencies of Reacting Systems 758 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 762 14 Chemical and Phase Equilibrium 774 Equilibrium Fundamentals 775 14.1 Introducing Equilibrium Criteria 775 Chemical Equilibrium 779 14.2 Equation of Reaction Equilibrium 780 14.3 Calculating Equilibrium Compositions 782 14.4 Further Examples of the Use of the Equilibrium Constant 791 Phase Equilibrium 801 14.5 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance 801 14.6 Equilibrium of Multicomponent, Multiphase Systems 802 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 807 Appendix Tables, Figures, and Charts 815 Index to Tables in SI Units 815 Index to Tables in English Units 863 Index to Figures and Charts 911 Index 922 Answers to Selected Problems: Visit the student companion site at www.wiley.com/go/global/moran .