Principles of Concurrent and Distributed Programming: Algorithms and Models

Principles of Concurrent and Distributed Programming: Algorithms and Models

Paperback Prentice-Hall International Series in Computer Science

By (author) M. Ben-Ari

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  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc
  • Format: Paperback | 384 pages
  • Dimensions: 170mm x 232mm x 22mm | 640g
  • Publication date: 24 February 2006
  • Publication City/Country: New Jersey
  • ISBN 10: 032131283X
  • ISBN 13: 9780321312839
  • Edition: 2, Revised
  • Edition statement: 2nd Revised edition
  • Sales rank: 140,369

Product description

Principles of Concurrent and Distributed Programming provides an introduction to concurrent programming focusing on general principles and not on specific systems. Software today is inherently concurrent or distributed -- from event-based GUI designs to operating and real-time systems to Internet applications. The new edition of this classic introduction to concurrency has been completely revised in view of the growing importance of concurrency constructs embedded in programming languages and of formal methods such as model checking that are widely used in industry.

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Author information

Mordechai (Moti) Ben-Ari is an Associate Professor in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. He is the author of texts on Ada, concurrent programming, programming languages, and mathematical logic, as well as Just a Theory: Exploring the Nature of Science. In 2004 he was honored with the ACM/SIGCSE Award for Outstanding Contribution to Computer Science Education.

Back cover copy

Final Cover Copy - Ben-Ari Principles of Concurrent andDistributed Programming2nd Edition M. Ben-Ari The latest edition of a classic text from a winner of the ACM/SIGCSEAward for Outstanding Contribution to Computer Science Education. Software today is inherently concurrent or distributed - from event-based GUI designs to operating and real-time systems to Internet applications. The new edition of this classic introduction to concurrency has been completely revised in view of the growing importance of concurrencyconstructs embedded in programming languages and of formal methodssuch as model checking that are widely used in industry. The 2nd edition: O Focuses on algorithmic "principles "rather than language syntax;O Emphasizes the use of the Spin model checker for modeling concurrent systems and verifying program correctness;O Explains the implementation of concurrency in the Java and Ada languages.O Facilitates lab work with software tools for learning concurrent and distributed programming. Check out the companion website for the book at www.pearson.co.uk/ben-ari to find additional resources for both students and instructors, including source code in various languages for the programs in the book, answers to the exercises, and slides for all diagrams, algorithms and programs. About the Author Mordechai (Moti) Ben-Ari is an Associate Professor in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. He is the author of texts on Ada, concurrent programming, programming languages, and mathematical logic, as well as "Just a Theory: Exploring the Nature of Science." In 2004 he was honored with the ACM/SIGCSE Award for Outstanding Contribution to Computer Science Education.

Table of contents

Contents Preface xi 1 What is Concurrent Programming? 1 1.1 Introduction ... 1 1.2 Concurrency as abstract parallelism ... 2 1.3 Multitasking ... 4 1.4 The terminology of concurrency ... 4 1.5 Multiple computers ... 5 1.6 The challenge of concurrent programming ... 5 2 The Concurrent Programming Abstraction 7 2.1 The role of abstraction ... 7 2.2 Concurrent execution as interleaving of atomic statements ... 8 2.3 Justification of the abstraction ... 13 2.4 Arbitrary interleaving ... 17 2.5 Atomic statements ... 19 2.6 Correctness ... 21 2.7 Fairness ... 23 2.8 Machine-code instructions ... 24 2.9 Volatile and non-atomic variables ... 28 2.10 The BACI concurrency simulator ... 29 2.11 Concurrency in Ada ... 31 2.12 Concurrency in Java ... 34 2.13 Writing concurrent programs in Promela ... 36 2.14 Supplement: the state diagram for the frog puzzle ... 37 3 The Critical Section Problem 45 3.1 Introduction ... 45 3.2 The definition of the problem ... 45 3.3 First attempt ... 48 3.4 Proving correctness with state diagrams ... 49 3.5 Correctness of the first attempt ... 53 3.6 Second attempt ... 55 3.7 Third attempt ... 57 3.8 Fourth attempt ... 58 3.9 Dekker's algorithm ... 60 3.10 Complex atomic statements ... 61 4 Verification of Concurrent Programs 67 4.1 Logical specification of correctness properties ... 68 4.2 Inductive proofs of invariants ... 69 4.3 Basic concepts of temporal logic ... 72 4.4 Advanced concepts of temporal logic ... 75 4.5 A deductive proof of Dekker's algorithm ... 79 4.6 Model checking ... 83 4.7 Spin and the Promela modeling language ... 83 4.8 Correctness specifications in Spin ... 86 4.9 Choosing a verification technique ... 88 5 Advanced Algorithms for the Critical Section Problem 93 5.1 The bakery algorithm ... 93 5.2 The bakery algorithm for N processes ... 95 5.3 Less restrictive models of concurrency ... 96 5.4 Fast algorithms ... 97 5.5 Implementations in Promela ... 104 6 Semaphores 107 6.1 Process states ... 107 6.2 Definition of the semaphore type ... 109 6.3 The critical section problem for two processes ... 110 6.4 Semaphore invariants ... 112 6.5 The critical section problem for N processes ... 113 6.6 Order of execution problems ... 114 6.7 The producer-consumer problem ... 115 6.8 Definitions of semaphores ... 119 6.9 The problem of the dining philosophers ... 122 6.10 Barz's simulation of general semaphores ... 126 6.11 Udding's starvation-free algorithm ... 129 6.12 Semaphores in BACI ... 131 6.13 Semaphores in Ada ... 132 6.14 Semaphores in Java ... 133 6.15 Semaphores in Promela ... 134 7 Monitors 145 7.1 Introduction ... 145 7.2 Declaring and using monitors ... 146 7.3 Condition variables ... 147 7.4 The producer-consumer problem ... 151 7.5 The immediate resumption requirement ... 152 7.6 The problem of the readers and writers ... 154 7.7 Correctness of the readers and writers algorithm ... 157 7.8 A monitor solution for the dining philosophers ... 160 7.9 Monitors in BACI ... 162 7.10 Protected objects ... 162 7.11 Monitors in Java ... 167 7.12 Simulating monitors in Promela ... 173 8 Channels 179 8.1 Models for communications ... 179 8.2 Channels ... 181 8.3 Parallel matrix multiplication ... 183 8.4 The dining philosophers with channels ... 187 8.5 Channels in Promela ... 188 8.6 Rendezvous ... 190 8.7 Remote procedure calls ... 193 9 Spaces 197 9.1 The Linda model ... 197 9.2 Expressiveness of the Linda model ... 199 9.3 Formal parameters ... 200 9.4 The master-worker paradigm ... 202 9.5 Implementations of spaces ... 204 10 Distributed Algorithms 211 10.1 The distributed systems model ... 211 10.2 Implementations ... 215 10.3 Distributed mutual exclusion ... 216 10.4 Correctness of the Ricart-Agrawala algorithm ... 223 10.5 The RA algorithm in Promela ... 225 10.6 Token-passing algorithms ... 227 10.7 Tokens in virtual trees ... 230 11 Global Properties 237 11.1 Distributed termination ... 237 11.2 The Dijkstra-Scholten algorithm ... 243 11.3 Credit-recovery algorithms ... 248 11.4 Snapshots ... 250 12 Consensus 257 12.1 Introduction ... 257 12.2 The problem statement ... 258 12.3 A one-round algorithm ... 260 12.4 The Byzantine Generals algorithm ... 261 12.5 Crash failures ... 263 12.6 Knowledge trees ... 264 12.7 Byzantine failures with three generals ... 266 12.8 Byzantine failures with four generals ... 268 12.9 The flooding algorithm ... 271 12.10 The King algorithm ... 274 12.11 Impossibility with three generals ... 280 13 Real-Time Systems 285 13.1 Introduction ... 285 13.2 Definitions ... 287 13.3 Reliability and repeatability ... 288 13.4 Synchronous systems ... 290 13.5 Asynchronous systems ... 293 13.6 Interrupt-driven systems ... 297 13.7 Priority inversion and priority inheritance ... 299 13.8 The Mars Pathfinder in Spin ... 303 13.9 Simpson's four-slot algorithm ... 306 13.10 The Ravenscar profile ... 309 13.11 UPPAAL ... 311 13.12 Scheduling algorithms for real-time systems ... 312 A The Pseudocode Notation 317 B Review of Mathematical Logic 321 B.1 The propositional calculus ... 321 B.2 Induction ... 323 B.3 Proof methods ... 324 B.4 Correctness of sequential programs ... 326 C Concurrent Programming Problems 331 D Software Tools 339 D.1 BACI and jBACI ... 339 D.2 Spin and jSpin ... 341 D.3 DAJ ... 345 E Further Reading 349 Bibliography 351 Index 355