People of the Earth: An Introduction to World HistoryPaperback Myanthrokit
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- Publisher: Prentice Hall
- Format: Paperback | 576 pages
- Dimensions: 216mm x 274mm x 33mm | 1,134g
- Publication date: 1 August 2009
- Publication City/Country: Upper Saddle River
- ISBN 10: 0205735673
- ISBN 13: 9780205735679
- Edition: 13
- Edition statement: United States ed of 13th revised ed
- Illustrations note: black & white illustrations, colour illustrations, colour tables, maps, frontispiece, figures
- Sales rank: 841,006
This internationally renowned text provides the only truly global account of human prehistory from the earliest times through the earliest civilizations. Written in an accessible way, People of the Earth shows how today's diverse humanity developed biologically and culturally over millions of years against a background of constant climatic change.
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Brian Fagan is one of the leading archaeological writers in the world and an internationally recognized authority on world prehistory. He studied archaeology and anthropology at Pembroke College, Cambridge University, and then spent seven years in sub-Saharan Africa working in museums and in monument conservation and excavating early farming sites in Zambia and East Africa. He was one of the pioneers of multidisciplinary African history in the 1960s. From 1967 to 2003, he was professor of anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he specialized in lecturing and writing about archaeology to wide audiences. He is now professor emeritus. Professor Fagan has written six best-selling textbooks: Ancient Lives: An Intro-duction to Archaeology and Prehistory; In the Beginning; Archaeology: A Brief Introduction; People of the Earth; World Prehistory; and A Brief History of Archaeology--all published by Prentice Hall--which are used around the world. His general books include The Rape of the Nile, a classic history of Egyptology; The Adventure of Archaeology; Time Detectives; Ancient North America; The Little Ice Age; and The Great Warming. He is general editor of the Oxford Companion to Archaeology. In addition, he has published several scholarly monographs on African archaeology and numerous specialized articles in national and international journals. He is also an expert on multimedia teaching and received the Society for American Archaeology's first Public Education Award for his indefatigable efforts on behalf of archaeology and education.
Back cover copy
This internationally renowned text provides the only truly global account of human prehistory from the earliest times through the earliest civilizations. Written in an accessible way, "People of the Earth "shows how today's diverse humanity developed biologically and culturally over millions of years against a background of constant climatic change.
Table of contents
CONTENTS: Preface Author's Note About the Author CHAPTER 1 Introducing World Prehistory Archaeology and Prehistory < Site: The Amesbury Archer The Beginnings of World Prehistory Who Needs the Past? < Science: Dating the Past Cyclical and Linear Time Written Records, Oral Traditions, and Archaeology Studying Culture and Culture Change Primary Cultural Processes Theoretical Approaches: Culture as Adaptation Climatic Change Culture as Adaptation Cultural Evolution and Cultural Ecology Multilinear Evolution: Prestate and State-Organized Societies Theoretical Approaches: Evolutionary Ecology and Hunter-Gatherers Theoretical Approaches: People as Agents of Change External and Internal Constraints Interactions Gender: Men and Women Trade and Exchange Ideologies and Beliefs Summary PART I BEGINNINGS 7 MILLION TO 40,000 YEARS AGO CHAPTER 2 Human Origins 7 MILLION TO 1.9 MILLION YEARS AGO The Great Ice Age The Origins of the Human Line Aegyptopithecus Miocene Primates Molecular Biology and Human Evolution The Ecological Problems Faced by Early Hominins Adaptive Problems Fossil Evidence: 7 to 3 MYA < Dating the Past: Potassium-Argon Dating Toumai: Sahelanthropus tchadensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Laetoli: Footprints of A. afarensis Fossil Evidence: 3 to 2.5 MYA Gracile Australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus Robust Australopithecines: A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, and A. robustus Australopithecus garhi Early Homo: 2.5 to 2.0 MYA Homo habilis A Burst of Rapid Change? Who Was the First Human? Early Hominin Evolution: 7 to 1 MYA Archaeological Evidence for Early Human Behavior Evidence for "Central Places"? < Site: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, East Africa Hunting and Scavenging Plant Foraging and "Grandmothering" Toolmaking The Oldowan Industry The Mind of the Earliest Humans The Development of Language Social Organization Summary Chapter 3 Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens 1.9 MILLION TO 40,000 YEARS AGO Pleistocene Background Lower Pleistocene (1.6 Million to c. 780,000 Years Ago) Middle Pleistocene (c. 780,000 to 128,000 Years Ago) Homo ergaster in Africa The Radiation of Homo ergaster The Archaic World Fire Homo erectus in Asia Southeast Asia China Early Asian Technology The Settlement of Temperate Latitudes Earliest Human Settlement in Southwest Asia and Europe Southwest Asia Europe Archaic Human Technology Hand Axes and Other Tools Hand Axes and the Evolution of the Human Mind Evidence for Behavior: Boxgrove, Schoningen, and Torralba < Site: A 400,000-Year-Old Hunt at Schoningen, Germany Language The Neanderthals < Dating the Past: Radiocarbon Dating A More Complex Technology Levallois and Disk-Core-Reduction Strategies Tool Forms and Variability The Origins of Burial and Religious Belief The Origins of Modern Humans Continuity or Replacement? Homo sapiens in Africa Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens Ecology and Homo sapiens The Spread of Homo sapiens The Issue of Cognitive Ability Homo sapiens in East Asia Summary PART II THE GREAT DIASPORA: THE SPREAD OF MODERN HUMANS 45,000 YEARS AGO TO MODERN TIMES Chapter 4 Europe and Eurasia c. 40,000 TO 8000 B.C. The Spread of Modern Humans to 12,000 Years Ago The Upper Pleistocene (c. 126,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.) Modern Humans in Southwest Asia The Upper Paleolithic Transition A Cultural Explosion? Modern Humans in Europe European Hunter-Gatherers (45,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.) Settlement Strategies and Lifeways Social Life and Group Size Upper Paleolithic Art < Site: Grotte de Chauvet, France Paintings and Engravings Explaining Upper Paleolithic Art Human Settlement in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago) Siberia (?33,000 to 13,000 Years Ago) The Settlement of Far Northeast Asia Bifaces, Microblades, and the First Americans Summary Chapter 5 The First Americans 14,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES The First Settlement of the Americas Ice Sheets and the Bering Land Bridge The First Settlement of Alaska Biological and Linguistic Evidence for the First Americans The Earliest Sites South of the Ice Sheets Settlement Routes: Ice-Free Corridors and Seacoasts Late Wisconsin Settlement in North America? Central and South America? A Scenario for First Settlement The Paleo-Indians: Clovis and Others Big-Game Extinctions Later Hunters and Gatherers Plains Hunters The Desert West Eastern North America < Site: Koster, Illinois Specialized Foraging Societies in Central and South America Aleuts and Inuit (Eskimo) Summary Chapter 6 Africans and Australians 45,000 YEARS AGO TO MODERN TIMES African Hunter-Gatherers, Past and Present Sunda and Sahul: The First Settlement of Island Southeast Asia < Site: Exotic Islanders: Homo floresiensis New Guinea and Adjacent Islands Australia Ice Age Wallaby Hunters in Tasmania Later Australian Cultures Summary Chapter 7 Intensification and Complexity BEFORE 10,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES The Holocene (After 10,000 B.C.) Coping with Environmental Variation Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in Europe < Site: Star Carr, England Mesolithic Complexity in Scandinavia The Maglemose Period (7500 to 5700 B.C.) The Kongemose Period (5700 to 4600 B.C.) The Ertebolle Period (4600 to 3200 B.C.) Hunter-Gatherer Complexity Conditions for Greater Complexity Attributes of Greater Complexity Debates About Social Complexity Hunter-Gatherer Societies in Southwest Asia Summary PART III FIRST FARMERS 211 c. 10,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES Chapter 8 A Plenteous Harvest THE ORIGINS Theories About the Origins of Food Production Early Hypotheses Multivariate Theories < Site: Guila Naquitz, Mexico Differing Dates for Food Production Studying Early Food Production < Dating the Past: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Radiocarbon Dating Why Did Food Production Take Hold So Late? Consequences of Food Production Nutrition and Early Food Production Herding: Domestication of Animals Plant Cultivation Technology and Domestication Early Food Production Summary Chapter 9 The Origins of Food Production in Southwest Asia A Scenario for Early Agriculture The First Farmers: Netiv Hagdud, Abu Hureyra, and Jericho Netiv Hagdud Abu Hureyra Jericho Diverse Farming Economies and Trade The Zagros and Mesopotamia Zawi Chemi Shanidar Ganj Dareh Jarmo Ali Kosh and the Lowlands < Site: Ritual Buildings in Southeastern Turkey Early Farmers in Anatolia Hacilar and Catalhoyuk Two Stages of Farming Development Summary Chapter 10 The First European Farmers Mesolithic Prelude The Transition to Farming in Europe Farming in Greece and Southern Europe The Spread of Agriculture into Temperate Europe The Balkans Bandkeramik Cultures Frontiers and Transitions Social Changes, Lineages, and the Individual The Introduction of the Plow Plains Farmers: Tripolye Mediterranean and Western Europe The Megaliths < Site: Easton Down and the Avebury Landscape Summary Chapter 11 First Farmers in Egypt and Tropical Africa Hunter-Gatherers on the Nile Agricultural Origins Along the Nile Saharan Pastoralists Early Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa Summary Chapter 12 Asia and the Pacific Rice, Roots and Ocean Voyages The Origins of Rice Cultivation Early Farming in China Southern and Eastern China Northern China Jomon and Early Agriculture in Japan Early Agriculture in Southeast Asia < Site: The Princess of Khok Phanom Di, Thailand Rice and Root Cultivation in Island Southeast Asia Agriculture in the Pacific Islands The Lapita Cultural Complex and the Settlement of Melanesia and Western Polynesia Long-Distance Voyaging in the Pacific < Science: Indigenous Pacific Navigation The Settlement of Micronesia and Eastern Polynesia The Settlement of New Zealand Summary Chapter 13 The Story of Maize: Early Farmers in the Americas The First Plant Domestication The Origins of Maize Agriculture Beans and Squash Early Food Production in the Andes The Highlands The Peruvian Coast Early Farmers in Southwestern North America Hohokam Mogollon Ancestral Pueblo < Site: The Chaco Phenomenon Preagricultural and Agricultural Societies in Eastern North America Moundbuilder Cultures Early Woodland (Adena) Hopewell Mississippian Human Settlement in the Caribbean First Settlement (Preceramic Cultures) Saladoid Migrations Taino Chiefdoms Summary PART IV OLD WORLD CIVILIZATIONS c. 3000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES Chapter 14 The Development of Civilization Civilization Cities Six Classic Theories of the Emergence of States 1. V. Gordon Childe and the "Urban Revolution" 2. Ecology and Irrigation 3. Technology and Trade 4. Warfare 5. Cultural Systems and Civilization 6. Environmental Change Social Theories Power in Three Domains < Site: The Lord of Sican at Huaca Loro, Peru Chiefly Cycling: Processes and Agents Old World Civilizations The Collapse of Civilizations Summary Chapter 15 Early Civilizations in Southwest Asia Upland Villages Settlement of the Lowlands Environmental Change Archaeological Evidence < Site: The Temple at Eridu, Iraq Uruk: The Mesopotamian City Sumerian Civilization Exchange on the Iranian Plateau The Widening of Political Authority The Akkadians Babylon The Assyrians Summary Chapter 16 Egypt, Nubia, and Africa The Origins of the Egyptian State Ancient Monopoly? Naqada, Nekhen, and Maadi Writing A Scenario for Unification Intensification of Agriculture and Irrigation Archaic Egypt and the Creation of the Great Culture (2920 to 2575 B.C.) The Old Kingdom and the Pyramids (c. 2575 to 2180 B.C.) < Site: The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt The Egyptian State The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom (2180 to 1640 B.C.) The Second Intermediate Period (1640 to 1530 B.C.) The New Kingdom (1530 to 1070 B.C.) The "Estate of Amun" Amarna and Akhenaten < Mummies and Mummification The Restoration of Amun The Late Period (1070 to 332 B.C.) Egypt and Africa Nubia: The Land of Kush Meroe and Aksum North Africa Jenne-jeno and the Rise of African States Ghana Mali Songhay Farmers and Traders in Eastern and Southern Africa Towns and Trade on the East African Coast Great Zimbabwe Europe and Africa Summary Chapter 17 Early States in South and Southeast Asia The Roots of South Asian Civilization Highlands and Lowlands: The Kulli Complex A Rapid Transition Mature Harappan Civilization Who Were the Harappans? Harappan Beliefs South Asia After the Harappans Southeast Asian States Dong Son Trade and Kingdoms The Rise of the God-Kings The Angkor State (A.D. 802 to 1430) < Site: Angkor Wat, Cambodia Summary Chapter 18 Early Chinese Civilization The Origins of Chinese Civilization Longshan and Liangzhu Shoulder Blades and Oracles Xia and Shang Capitals and Sepulchers The Shang Royal Burials The Bronze Smiths The Warlords < Site: The Burial Mound of Emperor Shihuangdi, China Summary Chapter 19 Hittites, Minoans, and Mycenaeans Early Towns in Anatolia Balance of Power: The Hittites The Sea Peoples and the Rise of Israel The Phoenicians The Aegean and Greece The Minoans The Mycenaeans 449 < Site: The Mycenaean Shrine at Phylakopi, Melos Island, Greece Greek City-States After Mycenae The Etruscans and the Romans The Etruscans The Romans Summary Chapter 20 Europe Before the Romans Early Copper Working Battle Axes and Beakers < Site: Otzi the Iceman, Similaun Glacier, Italian Alps The European Bronze Age y Site: Stonehenge, England Bronze Age Warriors The Scythians and Other Steppe Peoples The First Ironworking The Hallstatt Culture La Tene Culture Summary PART V NATIVE AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 2000 B.C. TO A.D. 1534 Chapter 21 Mesoamerican Civilizations Village Farming Native American Civilizations Preclassic Peoples in Mesoamerica Early Preclassic Middle Preclassic: The Olmec Late Preclassic The Rise of Complex Society in Oaxaca Monte Alban Teotihuacan Maya Civilization Maya Origins Water Management Kingship: Sacred Space and Time Political Organization Classic and Late Classic Maya Political History < Site: Architecture as a Political Statement: The Hieroglyphic Stairway at Copan, Honduras The Ninth-Century Collapse The Toltecs Aztec Civilization and the Spanish Conquest Summary Chapter 22 Andean Civilizations The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization Coastal Foundations: The Initial Period Caral El Paraiso and Huaca Florida Chavin de Huantar Paracas: Textiles and Coastal Prehistory Complex Society in the Southern Highlands: Chiripa and Pukara The Early Intermediate Period The Moche State < Site: The Lords of Sipan, Peru The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari Tiwanaku Wari The Late Intermediate Period: Sican and Chimor The Late Horizon: The Inca State Amazonia The Spanish Conquest (1532 to 1534) Summary Glossary of Cultures and Sites Glossary of Technical Terms Bibliography of World Prehistory Credits Index