The Montessori Method

The Montessori Method

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By (author) Maria Montessori

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  • Publisher: Dover Publications Inc.
  • Format: Paperback | 416 pages
  • Dimensions: 133mm x 210mm x 25mm | 363g
  • Publication date: 14 August 2002
  • Publication City/Country: New York
  • ISBN 10: 0486421627
  • ISBN 13: 9780486421629
  • Edition: 5
  • Edition statement: 5th edition
  • Illustrations note:
  • Sales rank: 123,704

Product description

This is, quite simply, one of the landmark books in the history of education. Written by influential Italian educator Maria Montessori (1870-1952), it describes a new system for educating young children based on materials and methods she originally developed to teach retarded students. The techniques proved highly effective with normal children as well. Her system, based on a radical conception of liberty for the pupil and a highly formal training of separate sensory, motor, and mental capacities, led to rapid and substantial mastery of reading, writing, and arithmetic. In "The Montessori Method" (1912), her first book, Dr. Montessori outlines her techniques in discussions of such topics as scientific pedagogy; discipline; diet; gymnastics; manual labor; education of the senses; methods for teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic; and many other topics. The Dover edition is the least expensive edition available, making this seminal classic widely accessible to teachers, principals, parents -- anyone interested in the education of young children.

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Table of contents

  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS   PREFACE   INTRODUCTION   CHAPTER I     A CRITICAL CONSIDERATION OF THE NEW PEDAGOGY IN ITS RELATION TO MODERN SCIENCE       Influence of Modern Science upon Pedagogy       Italy's part in the development of Scientific Pedagogy       Difference between scientific technique and the scientific spirit       Direction of the preparation should be toward the spirit rather than toward the mechanism       The master to study man in the awakening of his intellectual life       Attitude of the teacher in the light of another example       The school must permit the free natural manifestations of the child if in the school Scientific Pedagogy is to be born       Stationary desk and chairs proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school       "Conquest of liberty, what the school needs"       What may happen to the spirit       "Prizes and punishments, the bench of the soul"       "All human victories, all human progress, stand upon the inner force"   CHAPTER II     HISTORY OF METHODS       Necessity of establishing the method peculiar to Scientific Pedagogy       "Origin of educational system in the use in the "Children's Houses"       Practical application ofhte methods of Itard and Séguin in the Orthophrenic School at Rome       Origin of the methods for the education of deficients       Application of the methods in Germany and France       Séguin's first didactic material was spiritual       Methods for deficients applied to the education of normal children       "Social and pedagogic importance of the "Children's Houses"   CHAPTER III     "INAUGURAL ADDRESS DELIVERED ON THE OCCASION OF THE OPENING OF ONE OF THE "CHILDREN'S HOUSES"       "The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the "Childrens' Houses"       Evil of subletting the most cruel form of usury       The problem of life more profound than that of the intellectual elevation of the poor       "Isolation of the masses of the poor, unknown to past venturies"       Work of the Roman Association of Good Building and the moral importance of their reforms       "The "Children's House" earned by the parents through their care of the building"       "Pedagogical organization of the "Children's House"       "The "Children's House" the first step toward the socialisation of the house"       The communised house in its relation to the home and to the spiritual evolution of women       "Rules and regulations of th e"Children's Houses"   CHAPTER IV     "PEDAGOGICAL METHODS USED IN THE "CHILDREN'S HOUSES"       Child psychology can be established only through the method of external observation       Anthropological consideration       Anthropological notes       Environment and schoolroom furnishings   CHAPTER V     DISCIPLINE       Discipline through liberty       Independence       Abolition of prizes and external forms of punishment       Biological concept of liberty in pedagogy   CHAPTER VI     HOW THE LESSON SHOULD BE GIVEN       Characteristics of the individual lessons       Method of observation the fundamental guide       Difference between the scientific and unscientific methods illustrated       "First task of educators to stimulate life, leaving it then free to develop"   CHAPTER VII     EXERCISES OF PRACTICAL LIFE       "Suggested schedule for the "Children's Houses"       The child must be prepared for the forms of social life and his attention attracted to these forms       "Cleanliness, order, poise, conversation"   CHAPTER VIII     REFECTION-THE CHILD'S DIET       Diet must be adapted to the child's physical nature       Foods and their preparation       Drinks       Distribution of meals   CHAPTER IX     MUSCULAR EDUCATION-GYMNASTICS       Generally accepted idea of gymnastics is inadequate       The special gymnastics necessary for little children       Other pieces of gymnastic apparatus       Free gymnastics       Educational gymnastics       "Respiratory gymnastics, and labial, dental, lingual gymnastics"   CHAPTER X     NATURE IN EDUCATION-AGRICULTURAL LABOUR: CULTURE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS       The savage of the Aveyron       Itard's educative drama repeated it the education of little children       Gardening and horitculture basis of a method for education of children       The child initiated into observation of the phenomena of life and into foresight by way of auto-education       "Children are initiated into the virtue of patience and into confident expectation, and are inspired with a feeling for nature"       The child follows the natural way of development of the human race   CHAPTER XI     "MANUAL LABOUR-THE POTTER'S ART, AND BUILDING"       Difference between manual labour and manual gymnastics       The School of Educative Art       "Archæological, historica, and artistic importance of the vase"       Manufacture of diminutive bricks and construction of diminutive walls and houses   CHAPTER XII     EDUCATION OF THE SENSES       Aim of education to develop the energies       Difference in the reaction between deficient and normal children in the presentation of didatic material made up of graded stimuli       Education of the senses has as its aim the refinement of the differential perception of stimuli by means of repeated exercises       Three Periods of Séguin   CHAPTER XIII     "EDUCATION OF THE SENSES AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE DIDACTIC MATERIAL: GENERAL SENSIBILITY: THE TACTILE, THERMIC, BARIC AND STEREOGNOSTIC SENSES"       "Education of the tactile, thermic and baric senses"       Education of the stereognostic sense       Education of the senses of taste and smell       Education of the sense of vision       Exercises with the three series of cards       Education of the chromatic sense       Exercise for the discrimination of sounds       Musical education       Tests for acuteness of hearing       A lesson in silence   C       Originof aphabets in present use   CHAPTER XVII     DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD AND DIDACTIC MATERIAL USED       Exercise tending to develop the muscular mechanism necessary in holding and using the instrument in writing       Didactic material for writing       "Exercise tending to establish the visual-muscular image of the alphabetical signs, and to establish the muscular memory of the movements necessary to writing"       Exercises for the composition of words       "Reading, the interpretation of an idea from written signs"       Games for the reading of phrases       "Point education has reached in the "Children's Houses"   CHAPTER XVIII     LANGUAGE IN CHILDHOOD       Physiological importance of graphic language       Two periods in the development of language       Analysis of speech necessary       Defects of language due to education   CHAPTER XIX     TEACHING OF NUMERATION: INTRODUCTION TO ARITHMETIC       Numbers as represented by graphic signs       Exercises for the memory of numbers       Addition and subtraction from one to twenty: multiplication and division       Lessons on decimals: arithmetical calculations beyond ten   CHAPTER XX     SEQUENCE OF EXERCISES       Sequence and grades in the presentation of material and in the exercises       First grade       Second grade       Third grade       Fourth grade       Fifth grade   CHAPTER XXI     GENERAL REVIEW OF DISCIPLINE       Discipline better than in ordinary schools       First dawning of discipline comes through work       Orderly action is the true rest for muscles intended by nature for action       "The exercise that develops life consists in the repetition, not in the mere grasp of the idea"       "Aim of repetition that the child shall refine his senses through the exercise of attention, of comparison, of judgment"       Obedience is naturally sacrifice       Obedience develops will-power and the capacity to perform the act it becomes necessary to obey   CHAPTER XXII     CONCLUSIONS AND IMPRESSIONS       "The Teacher has become the director of spontaneous work in the "Children's Houses"       The problems of religious education should be solved by positive pedagogy       "Spiritual influence of the "Children's Houses"