Mobile Clouds: Exploiting Distributed Resources in Wireless Networks

Mobile Clouds: Exploiting Distributed Resources in Wireless Networks

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By (author) Frank H. P. Fitzek, By (author) Marcos D. Katz

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Includes a preface written by Professor Leonard Kleinrock, Distinguished Professor of Computer Science, UCLA, USA This book discusses and explores the concept of mobile cloud , creating an inspiring research space for exploiting opportunistic resource sharing, and covering from theoretical research approaches to the development of commercially profitable ideas. A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept of resource sharing takes a wider and deeper meaning, creating the foundations for a global real-time multidimensional resource pool, the underlying infrastructure for shareconomy. Above all, this is an inspiring book for anyone who is concerned about the future of wireless and mobile communications networks and their relationship with Social networks. Key Features: Provides fundamental ideas and promising concepts for exploiting opportunistic cooperation and cognition in wireless and mobile networks Gives clear definitions of mobile clouds from different perspectives Associates mobile and wireless networks with social networks, creating a vast fertile ground for novel developments in both research and practical applications Considers research directions, emerging trends and visions This book is an excellent resource for wireless/networking researchers in industry and academia, students and mobile phone programmers. Managers interested in new technology developments, service providers, network operators, and those working in the gaming industry will also find the book insightful.

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Author information

Frank H. P. Fitzek is a Professor in the department of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Denmark. He received his diploma (Dipl.-Ing.) degree in electrical engineering from the University of Technology - Rheinisch-Westfalische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) - Aachen, Germany, in 1997 and his Ph.D. (Dr.-Ing.) in Electrical Engineering from the Technical University Berlin, Germany in 2002 and became Adjunct Professor at the University of Ferrara, Italy in the same year. He co-founded the start-up company acticom GmbH in Berlin in 1999. He has visited various research institutes including Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), VTT, and Arizona State University. In 2005 he won the YRP award for the work on MIMO MDC and received the Young Elite Researcher Award of Denmark. He was selected to receive the NOKIA Champion Award several times in a row from 2007 to 2011. In 2008 he was awarded the Nokia Achievement Award for his work on cooperative networks. In 2011 he received the SAPERE AUDE research grant from the Danish government and in 2012 he received the Vodafone Innovation price. His current research interests are in the areas of wireless and mobile communication networks, mobile phone programming, network coding, cross layer as well as energy efficient protocol design and cooperative networking. Marcos D. Katz works as a professor at Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland. He received the B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina in 1987, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from University of Oulu, Finland, in 1995 and 2002, respectively. He worked as a Research Engineer at Nokia Telecommunications from 1987 to 1995. From 1995 to 2001 he was a Senior Research Engineer at Nokia Networks, Finland. In 2001--2002 he was a Research Scientist at the Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland. In years 2003--2005 Dr Katz was the Principal Engineer at Samsung Electronics, Advanced Research Lab., Telecommunications R&D Center, Suwon, Korea. From 2006 to 2009 he worked as a Chief Research Scientist at VTT, the Technical Research Centre of Finland. His current research interests include cooperative and cognitive networking as well as optical communications, particularly visible light communications.

Review quote

"It is a classic that does not just sell to students during term time but has a much wider appeal ... This edition will sell really well on publication." (The Bookseller, 16 December 2011)

Back cover copy

This book discusses and explores the concept of mobile cloud, creating an inspiring research space for developing commercially profitable ideas based on exploiting opportunistic resource sharing. A Mobile Cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds enhance communications performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in a very novel manner. Energy-efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept of resource sharing takes a wider and deeper meaning, creating the foundations for a global real-time multidimensional resource pool, the underlying infrastructure for shareconomy. Above all, this is an inspiring book for anyone who is concerned about the future of wireless and mobile communications networks and their relationship with social networks.Key Features: Provides the basic ideas and concepts of exploiting opportunistically cooperation and cognition in wireless and mobile networksGives clear definitions of mobile clouds from different perspectivesAssociates mobile and wireless networks with social networks, creating a vast fertile ground for novel developments in both research and practical applications.Considers research directions, emerging trends and visionsThis book is an excellent resource for wireless/networking researchers in industry and academia, students and mobile phone programmers. Managers interested in new technology developments, service providers, network operators, and those working in the gaming industry will also find the book insightful.

Table of contents

Foreword xiii Preface xv Acknowledgements xxi Abbreviations xxiii Part One MOBILE CLOUDS: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1 Motivation 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 From Brick Phones to Smart Phones 5 1.3 Mobile Connectivity Evolution: From Single to Multiple Air Interface Devices 7 1.4 Network Evolution: The Need for Advanced Architectures 10 1.5 Conclusion 11 References 11 2 Mobile Clouds: An Introduction 13 2.1 Introduction 13 2.2 Mobile Cloud Definitions 15 2.3 Cooperation and Cognition in Mobile Clouds 24 2.4 Mobile Cloud Classification and Associated Cooperation Approaches 27 2.5 Types of Cooperation and Incentives 29 2.6 Conclusion 33 References 35 3 Sharing Device Resources in Mobile Clouds 37 3.1 Introduction 37 3.2 Examples of Resource Sharing 39 3.3 Sharing Loudspeakers 40 3.4 Sharing Microphones 41 3.5 Sharing Image Sensors 42 3.6 Sharing Displays 44 3.7 Sharing General--Purpose Sensors 46 3.8 Sharing Keyboards 46 3.9 Sharing Data Pipes 46 3.10 Sharing Mobile Apps 48 3.11 Sharing Mass Memory 48 3.12 Sharing Processing Units 49 3.13 Sharing Batteries 50 3.14 Conclusion 51 References 51 Part Two ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR MOBILE CLOUDS 4 Wireless Communication Technologies 55 4.1 Introduction 55 4.2 Cellular Communications Systems 56 4.3 Short--Range Technologies 58 4.4 Combined Air Interface 62 4.5 Building Mobile Clouds 64 4.6 Conclusion 65 References 66 5 Network Coding for Mobile Clouds 67 5.1 Introduction to Network Coding 67 5.2 Inter--Flow Network Coding 68 5.3 Inter--Flow Network Coding for User Cooperation in Mobile Clouds 73 5.4 Intra--Flow Network Coding 78 5.5 Intra--Flow Network Coding for User Cooperation in Mobile Clouds 80 5.6 Conclusion 91 References 91 6 Mobile Cloud Formation and Maintenance 93 6.1 Introduction 93 6.2 Mobile Cloud Stages 94 6.3 Service Discovery for Mobile Clouds 100 6.4 Conclusion 104 References 104 Part Three SOCIAL ASPECTS OF MOBILE CLOUDS 7 Cooperative Principles by Nature 107 7.1 Introduction 107 7.2 Cheetahs and Hyenas 108 7.3 Orca -- Killer Whales 109 7.4 Vampire Bats 109 7.5 Monkeys 110 7.6 Prisoner's Dilemma 110 7.7 Conclusion 115 References 115 8 Social Mobile Clouds 117 8.1 Introduction 117 8.2 Different Forms of Cooperation 118 8.3 Social Networks and Mobile Clouds 121 8.4 Cooperation in Relaying Networks: A Simple Example 128 8.5 Conclusion 129 References 130 Part Four GREEN ASPECTS OF MOBILE CLOUDS 9 Green Mobile Clouds: Making Mobile Devices More Energy Efficient 133 9.1 Introduction 133 9.2 Cooperative Download 138 9.3 Cooperative Streaming 150 9.4 Comparison of the Different Approaches 153 9.5 Conclusion and Outlook 154 9.6 Energy Gain for the Network Operator 156 9.7 Conclusion 157 References 157 Part Five APPLICATION OF MOBILE CLOUDS 10 Mobile Clouds Applications 161 10.1 Introduction 161 10.2 Forced Cooperation -- Overlay Network 162 10.3 Technology--enabled Cooperation -- Overlay Network 165 10.4 Socially--enabled Cooperation -- Overlay Network 166 10.5 Altruism -- Overlay Network 167 10.6 Forced Cooperation -- Direct Mobile Cloud 167 10.7 Technically--enabled Cooperation -- Direct Mobile Cloud 169 10.8 Socially--enabled Cooperation -- Direct Mobile Cloud 173 10.9 Altruism: Direct Mobile Cloud 174 10.10 Industrial Activities 175 10.11 Conclusion 176 References 176 Part Six MOBILE CLOUDS: PROSPECTS AND CONCLUSIONS 11 Visions and Prospects 181 11.1 Some Insights on the Future Developments of Mobile Clouds 181 11.2 Mobile Clouds and Related Technology Developments 184 11.3 Promising Novel Applications of Mobile Clouds 187 11.4 Resource Sharing as one of the Pillars of Social Interaction: the Birth of Shareconomy 189 References 192 Index 193