Microelectronic Circuits: SPICE

Microelectronic Circuits: SPICE

Paperback Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering (Paperback)

By (author) Gordon W. Roberts, By (author) Adel S. Sedra

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  • Publisher: Oxford University Press Inc
  • Format: Paperback | 464 pages
  • Dimensions: 190mm x 232mm x 24mm | 762g
  • Publication date: 21 November 1996
  • Publication City/Country: New York
  • ISBN 10: 0195108426
  • ISBN 13: 9780195108422
  • Edition: 2, Revised
  • Edition statement: 2nd Revised edition
  • Illustrations note: numerous line figures, tables
  • Sales rank: 1,103,231

Product description

Today, most, if not at all, microelectronic circuit design is carried out with the aid of a computer-aided circuit analysis program such as SPICE. SPICE, an acronym for Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis, is considered by many to be the de-facto industrial standard for computer-aided circuit analysis for microelectronic circuits, mainly because it is used by the majority of IC designers in North America today. It is reasonable to say that to master electronic circuit design, one must also develop a fair amount of expertise in a circuit analysis program such as SPICE. It is therefore our aim in this text to describe how SPICE is used to analyse microelectronic circuits, and more importantly, outline how SPICE is used in the process of design itself. There is a tendency for new designers of electronic circuits to be overwhelmed by the analysis capability of a circuit analysis program such as SPICE, and ignore the thought-process provided by a hand analysis using simple models for the transistors. Experience has shown that this generally leads to poor designs because most of the design effort is spent blindly searching for ways to improve the design using a brute-foce hit-and-miss approach. It is our intention in this book to avoid this pitfall and teach the reader what not to do with SPICE. This is accomplished by keying each example of this text to those presented in Microelectronic Circuits, Third Edition, by Sedra and Smith, where a complete hand analysis is provided. In this way, the insight provided by a hand analysis is readily available to our readers. All examples in this text are also available on-line via the world-wide-web site http://www.macs.ee.mcgill.ca/~roberts/.

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SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) has become the industry standard for computer-aided circuit analysis for microelectronic circuits, and it is used by the majority of IC designers in North America today. Unlike most SPICE books, which simply present SPICE in a how-to-use fashion, this volume outlines how SPICE is used in the process of design itself. It features methodologies for analyzing transistor and op amp circuits, over 100 SPICE examples, and numerous chapter problems. In many cases, new designers of electronic circuits blindly search for ways to improve the design itself using a brute-force, hit-and-miss approach. The intention of this book is to avoid this pitfall by teaching readers what not to do with SPICE. This is accomplished by keying each example in this text to those presented in Sedra and Smith's Microelectronic Circuits 3/E, where a complete hand analysis is provided. Another benefit of this book is that it can also stand alone as a manual for computer-aided circuit analysis for microelectronic circuits.

Table of contents

PREFACE ; 1. Introduction to Spice ; 1.1 Computer Simulation of Electronic Circuits ; 1.2 An Outline of Spice ; 1.2.1 Types of Analysis Performed by Spice ; 1.2.2 Input to Spice ; 1.2.3 Output from Spice ; 1.4 Examples ; 1.4.1 Example 1: DC Node Voltages of a Linear Network ; 1.4.2 Example 2: Tranient Response of a 3-Stage Linear Amplifier ; 1.4.3 Example 3: Setting Circuit Initial Conditions During a Tranient Analysis ; 1.4.4 Example 4: Frequency Response of a Linear Amplifier ; 1.5 Spice Tips ; 1.6 Bibliography ; 1.7 Problems ; 2. Operational Amplifiers ; 2.1 Modeling an Ideal Op Amp with Spice ; 2.2 Analyzing the Behavior of Ideal Op Amp Circuits ; 2.2.1 Inverting Amplifier ; 2.2.2 The Miller Integrator ; 2.2.3 A Damped Miller Integrator ; 2.2.4 The Unity-Gain Buffer ; 2.2.5 Instrumentation Amplifier ; 2.3 Nonideal Op Amp Performance ; 2.3.1 Small-Signal Frequency Response of Op Amp Circuits ; 2.3.2 Modeling the Large-Signal Behavior of Op Amps ; 2.4 The Effects of Op Amp Large-Signal Nonidealities on Closed-Loop Behavior ; 2.4.1 DC Transfer Characteristic of an Inverting Amplifier ; 2.4.2 Slew-Rate Limiting ; 2.4.3 Other Op Amp Nonidealities ; 2.5 Spice Tips ; 2.6 Bibliography ; 2.7 Problems ; 3. Diodes ; 3.1 Describing Diodes to Spice ; 3.1.1 Diode Element Description ; 3.1.2 Diode Model Description ; 3.2 Spice as a Curve Tracer ; 3.2.1 Temperature Effects ; 3.3 Zener Diode Modeling ; 3.4 A Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit ; 3.5 Limiting and Clamping Circuits ; 3.6 Spice Tips ; 3.7 Problems ; 4. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) ; 4.1 Describing BJTs to Spice ; 4.1.1 BJT Element Description ; 4.1.2 BJT Model Description ; 4.1.3 Verifying NPN Transistor Circuit Operation ; 4.2 Using Spice as a Curve Tracer ; 4.3 Spice Analysis as a Curve Tracer ; 4.3.1 Transistor Modes of Operation ; 4.3.2 Computing DC Bias of a PNP Transistor Circuit ; 4.4 BJT Transistor Amplifiers ; 4.4.1 BJT Small-Signal Model ; 4.4.2 Single-Stage Voltage-Amplifier Circuits ; 4.5 DC Bias Sensitivity Analysis ; 4.6 The Common-Emitter Amplifier ; 4.7 Spice Tips ; 4.8 Bibliography ; 4.9 Problems ; 5. Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) ; 5.1 Describing MOSFETs to Spice ; 5.1.1 MOSFET Element Description ; 5.1.2 MOSFET Model Description ; 5.1.3 An Enhancement-Mode N-Channel MOSFET Circuit ; 5.1.4 Observing the MOSFET Current - Voltage Characteristics ; 5.2 Spice Analysis of MOSFET Circuits at DC ; 5.2.1 An Enhancement-Mode P-Channel MOSFET Circuit ; 5.2.2 A Depletion-Mode P-Channel MOSFET Circuit ; 5.2.3 A Depletion-Mode N-Channel MOSFET Circuit ; 5.3 Descrbing JFETs to Spice ; 5.3.1 JFET Element Description ; 5.3.2 JFET Model Description ; 5.3.3 An N-Channel JFET Example ; 5.3.4 A P-Channel JFET Example ; 5.4 FET Amplifier Circuis ; 5.4.1 Effect of Bias Pointn on Amplifier Conditions ; 5.4.2 Small-Signal Model of the FET ; 5.4.3 A Basic FET Amplifier Circuit ; 5.5 Investigating Bias Stability with Spice ; 5.6 Integrated-Circuit MOS Amplifiers ; 5.6.1 Enhancement-Load Amplifiers Including the Body Effect ; 5.6.2 CMOS Amplifier ; 5.7 MOSFET Switches ; 5.8 Describing MESFETs to Spice ; 5.8.1 MESFET Element Description ; 5.8.2 MESFET Model Description ; 5.8.3 Small-Signal MESFET Model ; 5.8.4 A MESFET Biasing Example ; 5.9 Spice Tips ; 5.10 Bibliography ; 5.11 Problems ; 6. Differential and Multistage Amplifiers ; 6.1 Input Excitation for the Differential Pair ; 6.2 Small-Signal Analysis of the Differential Amplifier: Symmetric Conditions ; 6.3 Small-Signal Analysis of the Differential Amplifier: Assymmetric Conditions ; 6.4 Current-Souce Biasing in Integrated Circuits ; 6.5 A BJT Multistage Amplifier Circuit ; 6.6 Spice Tips ; 6.7 Bibliography ; 6.8 Problems ; 7. Frequency Problems ; 7.1 Investigating Transfer Function Behavior Using PSpice ; 7.2 Modeling Dynamic Effects in Semiconductor Devices ; 7.3 The Low-Frequency Response of the Common-Source Amplifier ; 7.4 High-Frequency Response Comparison of the Common-Emitter and Cascode Amplfiers ; 7.5 High-Frequency Response of the CC-CE Amplfier ; 7.6 Spice Tips ; 7.7 Problems ; 8. Feedback ; 8.1 The General Feedback Structure ; 8.2 Determining Loop Gain with Spice ; 8.3 Stability Analysis Using Spice ; 8.4 Investigating the Range of Amplifier Stability ; 8.5 The Effect of Phase Margin on Transient Response ; 8.6 Frequency Compensation ; 8.7 Spice Tips ; 8.8 Bibliography ; 8.9 Problems ; 9. Output Stages and Power Amplifiers ; 9.1 Emitter-Follower Output Stage ; 9.2 Class B Output Stage ; 9.3 Spice Tips ; 9.4 Problems ; 10. Analog Integrated Circuits ; 10.1 A Detailed Analysis of the 741 Op Amp Circuit ; 10.2 A CMOS Op Amp ; 10.3 Spice Tips ; 10.4 Bibliography ; 10.5 Problems ; 11. Filters and Tuned Amplifiers ; 11.1 The Butterworth and Chebyshev Transfer Functions ; 11.2 Second-Order Active Filters Based on Inductor Replacement ; 11.3 Second-Order Active Filters Based on the Two-Integrator-Loop Technology ; 11.4 Tuned Amplifiers ; 11.5 Spice Tips ; 11.6 Bibiliography ; 11.7 Problems ; 12. Signal Generators and Waveform - Shaping Circuits ; 12.1 Op Amp-RC Sinusoidal Oscillators ; 12.1.1 The Wien-Bridge Oscillator ; 12.1.2 An Active-Filter-Tuned Oscillator ; 12.2 Multivibrator Circuits ; 12.3 Precision Rectifier Circuits ; 12.4 Spice Tips ; 12.5 Bibiliography ; 12.6 Problems ; 13. MOS Digital Circuits ; 13.1 NMOS Inverter with Enhancement Load ; 13.2 NMOS Inverter with Depletion Load ; 13.3 The CMOS Inverter ; 13.4 A Gallium-Arsenide Inverter Circuit ; 13.5 Spice Tips ; 13.6 Problems ; 14. Bipolar Digital Circuits ; 14.1 Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) ; 14.2 Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL) ; 14.3 BiCMOS Digital Circuits ; 14.4 Bibliography ; 14.5 Problems ; A.1 Diode Model ; A.2 BJT Model ; A.3 JET Model ; A.4 MOSFET Model ; A.5 MESFET Model ; A.6 Bibliography ; INDEX