Malware Analyst's Cookbook and DVD: Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code

Malware Analyst's Cookbook and DVD: Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code

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By (author) Michael Ligh, By (author) Steven Adair, By (author) Blake Hartstein, By (author) Matthew Richard

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  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Format: Paperback | 744 pages
  • Dimensions: 188mm x 234mm x 42mm | 1,120g
  • Publication date: 2 November 2010
  • Publication City/Country: Chichester
  • ISBN 10: 0470613033
  • ISBN 13: 9780470613030
  • Sales rank: 112,282

Product description

A computer forensics "how-to" for fighting malicious code andanalyzing incidents With our ever-increasing reliance on computers comes anever-growing risk of malware. Security professionals will findplenty of solutions in this book to the problems posed by viruses,Trojan horses, worms, spyware, rootkits, adware, and other invasivesoftware. Written by well-known malware experts, this guide revealssolutions to numerous problems and includes a DVD of customprograms and tools that illustrate the concepts, enhancing yourskills. * Security professionals face a constant battle against malicioussoftware; this practical manual will improve your analyticalcapabilities and provide dozens of valuable and innovativesolutions * Covers classifying malware, packing and unpacking, dynamicmalware analysis, decoding and decrypting, rootkit detection,memory forensics, open source malware research, and much more * Includes generous amounts of source code in C, Python, and Perlto extend your favorite tools or build new ones, and customprograms on the DVD to demonstrate the solutions Malware Analyst's Cookbook is indispensible to ITsecurity administrators, incident responders, forensic analysts,and malware researchers.

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Author information

Michael Hale Ligh is a malicious code analyst at VerisigniDefense and Chief of Special Projects at MNIN Security. Steven Adair is a member of the Shadowserver Foundationand frequently analyzes malware and tracks botnets. He alsoinvestigates cyber attacks of all kinds with an emphasis on thoselinked to cyber espionage. Blake Hartstein is the author of multiple security toolsand a Rapid Response Engineer at Verisign iDefense, where heresponds to malware incidents. Matthew Richard has authored numerous security tools andalso ran a managed security service for banks and creditunions.

Back cover copy

Powerful, step-by-step solutions to dozens of common threats We called this a cookbook because each "recipe" presents both the ingredients and the steps you take to resolve a specific problem or research a given threat. On the DVD, you'll find supporting files and original programs that provide additional resources. You'll learn how to analyze malware using tools written by the authors as well as hundreds of other publicly available tools. If your job involves incident response, computer forensics, systems security, or antivirus research, this book will become invaluable to you. Learn to conduct online investigations without revealing your identity Use honeypots to collect malware being distributed by bots and worms Analyze JavaScript, PDFs, and Office documents for suspicious content Build a low-budget malware lab with virtualization or bare bones hardware Reverse engineer common encoding and encryption algorithms Set up an advanced memory forensics platform for malware analysis Investigate prevalent threats such as Zeus, Silent Banker, CoreFlood, Conficker, Virut, Clampi, Bankpatch, BlackEnergy, and many more! On the DVD Use the files on the DVD to follow along with the recipes or to conduct your own investigations and analyses. You will find: Evidence files Annotated videos Source code Windows and Linux tools Over 50 original programs in Python, C/C++, and Perl "The most useful technical security book I've read this year. A must-have for all who protect systems from malicious software." --Lenny Zeltser, Security Practice Director at Savvis and Senior Faculty Member at SANS Institute "The ultimate guide for anyone interested in malware analysis." --Ryan Olson, Director, VeriSign iDefense Rapid Response Team "Every page is filled with practical malware knowledge, innovative ideas, and useful tools. Worth its weight in gold!" --AAron Walters, Lead Developer of Volatility and VP of Security R&D at Terremark

Table of contents

Introduction xv On The Book s DVD xxiii 1 Anonymizing Your Activities 1 Recipe 1-1: Anonymous Web Browsing with Tor 3 Recipe 1-2: Wrapping Wget and Network Clients with Torsocks 5 Recipe 1-3: Multi-platform Tor-enabled Downloader in Python 7 Recipe 1-4: Forwarding Traffic through Open Proxies 12 Recipe 1-5: Using SSH Tunnels to Proxy Connections 16 Recipe 1-6: Privacy-enhanced Web browsing with Privoxy 18 Recipe 1-7: Anonymous Surfing with Anonymouse.org 20 Recipe 1-8: Internet Access through Cellular Networks 21 Recipe 1-9: Using VPNs with Anonymizer Universal 23 2 Honeypots 27 Recipe 2-1: Collecting Malware Samples with Nepenthes 29 Recipe 2-2: Real-Time Attack Monitoring with IRC Logging 32 Recipe 2-3: Accepting Nepenthes Submissions over HTTP with Python 34 Recipe 2-4: Collecting Malware Samples with Dionaea 37 Recipe 2-5: Accepting Dionaea Submissions over HTTP with Python 40 Recipe 2-6: Real-time Event Notification and Binary Sharing with XMPP 41 Recipe 2-7: Analyzing and Replaying Attacks Logged by Dionea 43 Recipe 2-8: Passive Identification of Remote Systems with p0f 44 Recipe 2-9: Graphing Dionaea Attack Patterns with SQLite and Gnuplot 46 3 Malware Classification 51 Recipe 3-1: Examining Existing ClamAV Signatures 52 Recipe 3-2: Creating a Custom ClamAV Database 54 Recipe 3-3: Converting ClamAV Signatures to YARA 59 Recipe 3-4: Identifying Packers with YARA and PEiD 61 Recipe 3-5: Detecting Malware Capabilities with YARA 63 Recipe 3-6: File Type Identification and Hashing in Python 68 Recipe 3-7: Writing a Multiple-AV Scanner in Python 70 Recipe 3-8: Detecting Malicious PE Files in Python 75 Recipe 3-9: Finding Similar Malware with ssdeep 79 Recipe 3-10: Detecting Self-modifying Code with ssdeep 82 Recipe 3-11: Comparing Binaries with IDA and BinDiff 83 4 Sandboxes and Multi-AV Scanners 89 Recipe 4-1: Scanning Files with VirusTotal 90 Recipe 4-2: Scanning Files with Jotti 92 Recipe 4-3: Scanning Files with NoVirusThanks 93 Recipe 4-4: Database-Enabled Multi-AV Uploader in Python 96 Recipe 4-5: Analyzing Malware with ThreatExpert 100 Recipe 4-6: Analyzing Malware with CWSandbox 102 Recipe 4-7: Analyzing Malware with Anubis 104 Recipe 4-8: Writing AutoIT Scripts for Joebox 105 Recipe 4-9: Defeating Path-dependent Malware with Joebox 107 Recipe 4-10: Defeating Process-dependent DLLs with Joebox 109 Recipe 4-11: Setting an Active HTTP Proxy with Joebox 111 Recipe 4-12: Scanning for Artifacts with Sandbox Results 112 5 Researching Domains and IP Addresses 119 Recipe 5-1: Researching Domains with WHOIS 120 Recipe 5-2: Resolving DNS Hostnames 125 Recipe 5-3: Obtaining IP WHOIS Records 129 Recipe 5-4: Querying Passive DNS with BFK 132 Recipe 5-5: Checking DNS Records with Robtex 133 Recipe 5-6: Performing a Reverse IP Search with DomainTools 134 Recipe 5-7: Initiating Zone Transfers with dig 135 Recipe 5-8: Brute-forcing Subdomains with dnsmap 137 Recipe 5-9: Mapping IP Addresses to ASNs via Shadowserver 138 Recipe 5-10: Checking IP Reputation with RBLs 140 Recipe 5-11: Detecting Fast Flux with Passive DNS and TTLs 143 Recipe 5-12: Tracking Fast Flux Domains 146 Recipe 5-13: Static Maps with Maxmind, matplotlib, and pygeoip 148 Recipe 5-14: Interactive Maps with Google Charts API 152 6 Documents, Shellcode, and URLs 155 Recipe 6-1: Analyzing JavaScript with Spidermonkey 156 Recipe 6-2: Automatically Decoding JavaScript with Jsunpack 159 Recipe 6-3: Optimizing Jsunpack-n Decodings for Speed and Completeness 162 Recipe 6-4: Triggering exploits by Emulating Browser DOM Elements 163 Recipe 6-5: Extracting JavaScript from PDF Files with pdfpy 168 Recipe 6-6: Triggering Exploits by Faking PDF Software Versions 172 Recipe 6-7: Leveraging Didier Stevens s PDF Tools 175 Recipe 6-8: Determining which Vulnerabilities a PDF File Exploits 178 Recipe 6-9: Disassembling Shellcode with DiStorm 185 Recipe 6-10: Emulating Shellcode with Libemu 190 Recipe 6-11: Analyzing Microsoft Office Files with OfficeMalScanner 193 Recipe 6-12: Debugging Office Shellcode with DisView and MalHost-setup 200 Recipe 6-13: Extracting HTTP Files from Packet Captures with Jsunpack 204 Recipe 6-14: Graphing URL Relationships with Jsunpack 206 7 Malware Labs 211 Recipe 7-1: Routing TCP/IP Connections in Your Lab 215 Recipe 7-2: Capturing and Analyzing Network Traffic 217 Recipe 7-3: Simulating the Internet with INetSim 221 Recipe 7-4: Manipulating HTTP/HTTPS with Burp Suite 225 Recipe 7-5: Using Joe Stewart s Truman 228 Recipe 7-6: Preserving Physical Systems with Deep Freeze 229 Recipe 7-7: Cloning and Imaging Disks with FOG 232 Recipe 7-8: Automating FOG Tasks with the MySQL Database 236 8 Automation 239 Recipe 8-1: Automated Malware Analysis with VirtualBox 242 Recipe 8-2: Working with VirtualBox Disk and Memory Images 248 Recipe 8-3: Automated Malware Analysis with VMware 250 Recipe 8-4: Capturing Packets with TShark via Python 254 Recipe 8-5: Collecting Network Logs with INetSim via Python 256 Recipe 8-6: Analyzing Memory Dumps with Volatility 258 Recipe 8-7: Putting all the Sandbox Pieces Together 260 Recipe 8-8: Automated Analysis with ZeroWine and QEMU 271 Recipe 8-9: Automated Analysis with Sandboxie and Buster 276 9 Dynamic Analysis 283 Recipe 9-1: Logging API calls with Process Monitor 286 Recipe 9-2: Change Detection with Regshot 288 Recipe 9-3: Receiving File System Change Notifications 290 Recipe 9-4: Receiving Registry Change Notifications 294 Recipe 9-5: Handle Table Diffing 295 Recipe 9-6: Exploring Code Injection with HandleDiff 300 Recipe 9-7: Watching BankpatchC Disable Windows File Protection 301 Recipe 9-8: Building an API Monitor with Microsoft Detours 304 Recipe 9-9: Following Child Processes with Your API Monitor 311 Recipe 9-10: Capturing Process, Thread, and Image Load Events 314 Recipe 9-11: Preventing Processes from Terminating 321 Recipe 9-12: Preventing Malware from Deleting Files 324 Recipe 9-13: Preventing Drivers from Loading 325 Recipe 9-14: Using the Data Preservation Module 327 Recipe 9-15: Creating a Custom Command Shell with ReactOS 330 10 Malware Forensics 337 Recipe 10-1: Discovering Alternate Data Streams with TSK 337 Recipe 10-2: Detecting Hidden Files and Directories with TSK 341 Recipe 10-3: Finding Hidden Registry Data with Microsoft s Offline API 349 Recipe 10-4: Bypassing Poison Ivy s Locked Files 355 Recipe 10-5: Bypassing Conficker s File System ACL Restrictions 359 Recipe 10-6: Scanning for Rootkits with GMER 363 Recipe 10-7: Detecting HTML Injection by Inspecting IE s DOM 367 Recipe 10-8: Registry Forensics with RegRipper Plug-ins 377 Recipe 10-9: Detecting Rogue-Installed PKI Certificates 384 Recipe 10-10: Examining Malware that Leaks Data into the Registry 388 11 Debugging Malware 395 Recipe 11-1: Opening and Attaching to Processes 396 Recipe 11-2: Configuring a JIT Debugger for Shellcode Analysis 398 Recipe 11-3: Getting Familiar with the Debugger GUI 400 Recipe 11-4: Exploring Process Memory and Resources 407 Recipe 11-5: Controlling Program Execution 410 Recipe 11-6: Setting and Catching Breakpoints 412 Recipe 11-7: Using Conditional Log Breakpoints 415 Recipe 11-8: Debugging with Python Scripts and PyCommands 418 Recipe 11-9: Detecting Shellcode in Binary Files 421 Recipe 11-10: Investigating Silentbanker s API Hooks 426 Recipe 11-11: Manipulating Process Memory with WinAppDbg Tools 431 Recipe 11-12: Designing a Python API Monitor with WinAppDbg 433 12 De-Obfuscation 441 Recipe 12-1: Reversing XOR Algorithms in Python 441 Recipe 12-2: Detecting XOR Encoded Data with yaratize 446 Recipe 12-3: Decoding Base64 with Special Alphabets 448 Recipe 12-4: Isolating Encrypted Data in Packet Captures 452 Recipe 12-5: Finding Crypto with SnD Reverser Tool, FindCrypt, and Kanal 454 Recipe 12-6: Porting OpenSSL Symbols with Zynamics BinDiff 456 Recipe 12-7: Decrypting Data in Python with PyCrypto 458 Recipe 12-8: Finding OEP in Packed Malware 461 Recipe 12-9: Dumping Process Memory with LordPE 465 Recipe 12-10: Rebuilding Import Tables with ImpREC 467 Recipe 12-11: Cracking Domain Generation Algorithms 476 Recipe 12-12: Decoding Strings with x86emu and Python 481 13 Working with DLLs 487 Recipe 13-1: Enumerating DLL Exports 488 Recipe 13-2: Executing DLLs with rundll32exe 491 Recipe 13-3: Bypassing Host Process Restrictions 493 Recipe 13-4: Calling DLL Exports Remotely with rundll32ex 495 Recipe 13-5: Debugging DLLs with LOADDLLEXE 499 Recipe 13-6: Catching Breakpoints on DLL Entry Points 501 Recipe 13-7: Executing DLLs as a Windows Service 502 Recipe 13-8: Converting DLLs to Standalone Executables 507 14 Kernel Debugging 511 Recipe 14-1: Local Debugging with LiveKd 513 Recipe 14-2: Enabling the Kernel s Debug Boot Switch 514 Recipe 14-3: Debug a VMware Workstation Guest (on Windows) 517 Recipe 14-4: Debug a Parallels Guest (on Mac OS X) 519 Recipe 14-5: Introduction to WinDbg Commands And Controls 521 Recipe 14-6: Exploring Processes and Process Contexts 528 Recipe 14-7: Exploring Kernel Memory 534 Recipe 14-8: Catching Breakpoints on Driver Load 540 Recipe 14-9: Unpacking Drivers to OEP 548 Recipe 14-10: Dumping and Rebuilding Drivers 555 Recipe 14-11: Detecting Rootkits with WinDbg Scripts 561 Recipe 14-12: Kernel Debugging with IDA Pro 566 15 Memory Forensics with Volatility 571 Recipe 15-1: Dumping Memory with MoonSols Windows Memory Toolkit 572 Recipe 15-2: Remote, Read-only Memory Acquisition with F-Response 575 Recipe 15-3: Accessing Virtual Machine Memory Files 576 Recipe 15-4: Volatility in a Nutshell 578 Recipe 15-5: Investigating processes in Memory Dumps 581 Recipe 15-6: Detecting DKOM Attacks with psscan 588 Recipe 15-7: Exploring csrssexe s Alternate Process Listings 591 Recipe 15-8: Recognizing Process Context Tricks 593 16 Memory Forensics: Code Injection and Extraction 601 Recipe 16-1: Hunting Suspicious Loaded DLLs 603 Recipe 16-2: Detecting Unlinked DLLs with ldr-modules 605 Recipe 16-3: Exploring Virtual Address Descriptors (VAD) 610 Recipe 16-4: Translating Page Protections 614 Recipe 16-5: Finding Artifacts in Process Memory 617 Recipe 16-6: Identifying Injected Code with Malfind and YARA 619 Recipe 16-7: Rebuilding Executable Images from Memory 627 Recipe 16-8: Scanning for Imported Functions with impscan 629 Recipe 16-9: Dumping Suspicious Kernel Modules 633 17 Memory Forensics: Rootkits 637 Recipe 17-1: Detecting IAT Hooks 637 Recipe 17-2: Detecting EAT Hooks 639 Recipe 17-3: Detecting Inline API Hooks 641 Recipe 17-4: Detecting Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) Hooks 644 Recipe 17-5: Detecting Driver IRP Hooks 646 Recipe 17-6: Detecting SSDT Hooks 650 Recipe 17-7: Automating Damn Near Everything with ssdt-ex 654 Recipe 17-8: Finding Rootkits with Detached Kernel Threads 655 Recipe 17-9: Identifying System-Wide Notification Routines 658 Recipe 17-10: Locating Rogue Service Processes with svcscan 661 Recipe 17-11: Scanning for Mutex Objects with mutantscan 669 18 Memory Forensics: Network and Registry 673 Recipe 18-1: Exploring Socket and Connection Objects 673 Recipe 18-2: Analyzing Network Artifacts Left by Zeus 678 Recipe 18-3: Detecting Attempts to Hide TCP/IP Activity 680 Recipe 18-4: Detecting Raw Sockets and Promiscuous NICs 682 Recipe 18-5: Analyzing Registry Artifacts with Memory Registry Tools 685 Recipe 18-6: Sorting Keys by Last Written Timestamp 689 Recipe 18-7: Using Volatility with RegRipper 692 Index 695