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Introduction to Crystallography

Introduction to Crystallography

Paperback Dover Classics of Science & Mathematics

By (author) Donald E. Sands

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  • Publisher: Dover Publications Inc.
  • Format: Paperback | 192 pages
  • Dimensions: 135mm x 213mm x 13mm | 200g
  • Publication date: 1 April 1994
  • Publication City/Country: New York
  • ISBN 10: 0486678393
  • ISBN 13: 9780486678399
  • Edition: New edition
  • Edition statement: New edition
  • Sales rank: 131,184

Product description

"This is truly a delightful monograph." -- "Canadian Chemical Education "Designed as a useful, accessible introduction to the logical development of basic crystallographic concepts, this book presents important principles in a clear, concise manner that will enable the nonspecialist to read and comprehend crystallographic literature. Explanations are concise and mathematical prerequisites have been kept to a minimum. In the first four chapters, the author presents the vocabulary of crystallography, with discussions of lattice points, unit cells, symmetry, point groups, crystal systems, space groups, and equivalent positions. The principles of x-ray diffraction and methods of determining crystal structures are summarized in the next two chapters. The final chapter describes various simple structures. Appendixes list the 230 space groups, introduce the reciprocal lattice, and describe the powder method. A well-chosen selection of problems (with solutions) encourages self-study. Ideal as the basis for a course in crystallography and highly useful as an adjunct to physical chemistry courses, this book will also serve as an excellent reference for practicing chemists, mineralogists, metallurgists, and other workers in the field. 1969 edition.

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Table of contents

Preface Chapter 1 Crystals and lattices 1-1 Definition of a crystal 1-2 Lattice points 1-3 Unit cells 1-4 Fractional coordinates 1-5 Unit cell calculations 1-6 Primitive and centered cells Chapter 2 Symmetry 2-1 Introduction 2-2 Definition of symmetry 2-3 Symmetry operations and elements of symmetry 2-4 Rotation axes 2-5 Mirror planes 2-6 Identity 2-7 Center of symmetry 2-8 Improper rotation axes 2-9 Point symmetry 2-10 Combinations of symmetry elements 2-11 Point groups 2-12 Group multiplication table 2-13 Point group nomenclature 2-14 Determination of point groups 2-15 Limitation on combinations of symmetry elements Chapter 3 Crystal systems and geometry 3-1 Classification of unit cells 3-2 Restrictions imposed by symmetry on unit cell dimensions 3-3 Crystal systems 3-4 Limitations on symmetry in crystals 3-5 Hermann-Mauguin notation 3-6 Bravais lattices 3-7 Distinction between trigonal and hexagonal systems 3-8 Crystal planes and indices 3-9 Law of rational indices 3-10 Interplanar spacings Chapter 4 Space groups and equivalent positions 4-1 Translational symmetry 4-2 Screw axes 4-3 Glide planes 4-4 Space groups 4-5 "Relationship between space groups, point groups, and physical properties" 4-6 Equivalent positions 4-7 Special positions 4-8 Space group tables in International Tables for X-ray Crystallography 4-9 Examples of the use of space group tables 4-10 Equivalent positions and the choice or origin Chapter 5 X-ray diffraction 5-1 Periodicity and structural information 5-2 The diffraction grating 5-3 Diffraction of X rays by crystals 5-4 The Laue equations 5-5 Rotating crystal method 5-6 Bragg's law 5-7 Generalization of Miller indices 5-8 Weissenberg camera 5-9 Buerger precession techniques 5-10 Comparison of Weissenberg and precession techniques 5-11 Information obtained from diffraction patterns 5-12 Electron density function 5-13 Fourier series 5-14 Fourier expansion of electron density 5-15 Intensities of diffraction spots 5-16 The phase problem 5-17 Calculation of structure factors 5-18 Effect of thermal vibration 5-19 Structure factors of centrosymmetric crystals 5-20 Friedel's law 5-21 Laue groups 5-22 Structure factors of sodium chloride 5-23 Extinctions due to glide planes 5-24 Extinctions due to screw axes Chapter 6 Determination of atomic positions 6-1 Solutions of structure factor equations 6-2 The Patterson function 6-3 Heavy-atom methods 6-4 Isomorphous replacement 6-5 Superposition methods 6-6 Inequalities 6-7 Sayre-Cochran-Zachariasen relationship 6-8 Hauptman-Karle methods 6-9 Summary of phase-determining methods 6-10 Refinement Chapter 7 Some simple structures 7-1 Close packing 7-2 Cubic close packing 7-3 Hexagonal close-packed structure 7-4 Body-centered cubic 7-5 Diamond structure 7-6 Graphite structure 7-7 Other elements 7-8 Sodium chloride structure 7-9 Cesium chloride structure 7-10 Fluorite structure 7-11 Rutile structure 7-12 Zinc sulfide structure 7-13 Zincite structure 7-14 Other structures Appendix 1 The 230 space groups Appendix 2 The reciprocal lattice Appendix 3 The powder method Solutions to exercises Index