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Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Voice Over IP and QoS (CVoice) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP Voice CVoice 642-437)

Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Voice Over IP and QoS (CVoice) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP Voice CVoice 642-437)

Hardback Foundation Learning Guide Series

By (author) Kevin Wallace

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  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Format: Hardback | 736 pages
  • Dimensions: 191mm x 234mm x 46mm | 1,429g
  • Publication date: 1 June 2011
  • Publication City/Country: Indianapolis
  • ISBN 10: 1587204193
  • ISBN 13: 9781587204197
  • Edition: 4, Revised
  • Edition statement: 4th Revised edition
  • Sales rank: 284,735

Product description

Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Voice over IP and QoS (CVOICE) Foundation Learning Guide Foundation Learning for the CCNP(R) Voice (CVOICE) 642-437 Exam Kevin Wallace, CCIE(R) No. 7945 Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Voice over IP and QoS (CVOICE) Foundation Learning Guide is a Cisco(R)-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCNP Voice foundation learning. Developed in conjunction with the Cisco CCNP Voice certification team, it covers all aspects of planning, designing, and deploying Cisco VoIP networks and integrating gateways, gatekeepers, and QoS into them. Updated throughout for the new CCNP Voice (CVOICE) Version 8.0 exam (642-437), this guide teaches you how to implement and operate gateways, gatekeepers, Cisco Unified Border Element, Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express, and QoS in a voice network architecture. Coverage includes voice gateways, characteristics of VoIP call legs, dial plans and their implementation, basic implementation of IP phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express environment, and essential information about gatekeepers and Cisco Unified Border Element. The book also provides information on voice-related QoS mechanisms that are required in Cisco Unified Communications networks. Fourteen video lab demonstrations on the accompanying CD-ROM walk you step by step through configuring DHCP servers, CUCME autoregistration, ISDN PRI circuits, PSTN dial plans, DID, H.323 and MGCP gateways, VoIP dial peering, gatekeepers, COR, AutoQoS VoIP, and much more. Whether you are preparing for CCNP Voice certification or simply want to gain a better understanding of VoIP and QoS, you will benefit from the foundation information presented in this book. - Voice gateways, including operational modes, functions, related call leg types, and routing techniques - Gateway connections to traditional voice circuits via analog and digital interfaces - Basic VoIP configuration, including A/D conversion, encoding, packetization, gateway protocols, dial peers, and transmission of DTMF, fax, and modem tones - Supporting Cisco IP Phones with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express - Dial plans, including digit manipulation, path selection, calling privileges, and more - Gatekeepers, Cisco Unified Border Elements, and call admission control (CAC) configuration - QoS issues and mechanisms - Unique DiffServ QoS characteristics and mechanisms - Cisco AutoQoS configuration and operation Companion CD-ROM The CD-ROM that accompanies this book contains 14 video lab demonstrations running approximately 90 minutes. This book is in the Foundation Learning Guide Series. These guides are developed together with Cisco(R) as the only authorized, self-paced learning tools that help networking professionals build their understanding of networking concepts and prepare for Cisco certification exams.

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Author information

Kevin Wallace, CCIE No. 7945, is a certified Cisco instructor and holds multiple Cisco certifications, including the CCSP, CCVP, CCNP, and CCDP, in addition to multiple security and voice specializations. With Cisco experience dating back to 1989 (beginning with a Cisco AGS+ running Cisco IOS 7.x), Kevin has been a network design specialist for the Walt Disney World Resort, a senior technical instructor for SkillSoft/Thomson NETg/KnowledgeNet, and a network manager for Eastern Kentucky University. Kevin holds a bachelor's of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kentucky. Also, Kevin has authored multiple books for Cisco Press, including CCNP TSHOOT 642-832 Official Certification Guide, Routing Video Mentor, and the Video Mentor component of the TSHOOT 642-832 Cert Kit, all of which target the current CCNP certification. Kevin lives in central Kentucky with his wife, Vivian, and two daughters, Stacie and Sabrina. You can follow Kevin online through the following social media outlets: ' Web page: http://1ExamAMonth.com ' Facebook Fan Page: Kevin Wallace Networking ' Twitter: http://twitter.com/kwallaceccie ' YouTube: http://youtube.com/kwallaceccie ' Network World blog: http://nww.com/community/wallace ' iTunes: 1ExamAMonth.com Podcast

Table of contents

Introduction xxx Chapter 1 Introducing Voice Gateways 1 The Role of Gateways 1 Traditional Telephony Networks 2 Cisco Unified Communications Overview 3 Cisco Unified Communications Architecture 4 Cisco Unified Communications Business Benefits 5 Cisco Unified Communications Gateways 6 Gateway Operation 7 Comparing VoIP Signaling Protocols 10 Gateway Deployment Example 12 IP Telephony Deployment Models 13 Single-Site Deployment 14 Multisite WAN with Centralized Call-Processing Deployment 16 Multisite WAN with Distributed Call-Processing Deployment 20 Clustering over the IP WAN Deployment 24 Modern Gateway Hardware Platforms 27 Cisco 2900 Series Integrated Services Routers 27 Cisco 3900 Series Integrated Services Routers 27 Well-Known Older Enterprise Models 27 Cisco 2800 Series Integrated Services Routers 28 Cisco 3800 Series Integrated Services Routers 29 Specialized Voice Gateways 30 Cisco ATA 186 30 Cisco VG248 Analog Phone Gateway 30 Cisco AS5350XM Series Universal Gateway 30 Cisco AS5400 Series Universal Gateway Platforms 31 Cisco 7200 Series Routers 32 Gateway Operational Modes 32 Voice Gateway Call Legs 33 Voice-Switching Gateway 34 VoIP Gateway 34 Cisco Unified Border Element 35 How Voice Gateways Route Calls 36 Gateway Call-Routing Components 36 Dial Peers 37 Call Legs 39 Configuring POTS Dial Peers 41 Matching a Dial Peer 43 Matching Outbound Dial Peers 48 Default Dial Peer 49 Direct Inward Dialing 50 Two-Stage Dialing 51 One-Stage Dialing 54 Configuration of Voice Ports 57 Analog Voice Ports 58 Signaling Interfaces 59 Analog Voice Port Interfaces 59 Analog Signaling 61 FXS and FXO Supervisory Signaling 61 Analog Address Signaling 64 Informational Signaling 65 E&M Signaling 66 E&M Physical Interface 68 E&M Address Signaling 68 Configuring Analog Voice Ports 69 FXS Voice Port Configuration 69 FXO Voice Port Configuration 72 E&M Voice Port Configuration 74 Trunks 76 Analog Trunks 77 Centralized Automated Message Accounting Trunk 80 Direct Inward Dialing Trunk 83 Timers and Timing 85 Verifying Voice Ports 86 Digital Voice Ports 90 Digital Trunks 90 T1 CAS 92 E1 R2 CAS 94 Nonfacility Associated Signaling 99 Configuring a T1 CAS Trunk 100 Configuring T1 CAS Trunks: Inbound E&M FGD and Outbound FGD EANA Example 108 Configuring an E1 R2 Trunk Example 110 Configuring an ISDN Trunk 112 Verifying Digital Voice Ports 117 Cross-Connecting a DS0 with an Analog Port 123 Echo Cancellation 124 Echo Origin 124 Talker Echo 125 Listener Echo 125 Echo Cancellation 125 Echo Canceller Operation 126 Echo Canceller Components 126 Configuring Echo Cancellation 127 Voice Packets Processing with Codecs and DSPs 128 Codecs 128 Impact of Voice Samples and Packet Size on Bandwidth 130 Evaluating Quality of Codecs 130 Mean Opinion Score 131 Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality 131 Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality 132 Test Method Comparison 132 Codec Quality 133 Evaluating Overhead 133 Bandwidth Calculation Example 135 Per-Call Bandwidth Using Common Codecs 135 Digital Signal Processors 136 Hardware Conferencing and Transcoding Resources 137 DSP Chip 138 Codec Complexity 140 Recommended Usage in Deployment Models 140 Packet Voice DSP Module Conferencing 141 DSP Calculator 141 Configuring DSPs 144 Configuring Conferencing and Transcoding on Voice Gateways 147 DSP Farms 148 DSP Profiles 149 SCCP Configuration 150 Unified Communications Manager Configuration 151 Cisco IOS Configuration Commands for Enhanced Media Resources 154 DSP Farm Configuration Commands for Enhanced Media Resources 155 SCCP Configuration Commands for Enhanced Media Resources 157 Verifying Media Resources 160 Summary 161 Chapter Review Questions 161 Chapter 2 Configuring Basic Voice over IP 165 Voice Coding and Transmission 165 VoIP Overview 166 Major Stages of Voice Processing in VoIP 166 VoIP Components 167 Sampling 169 Quantization 170 Coding 172 VoIP Packetization 173 Packetization Rate 173 Codec Operations 175 Packetization and Compression Example 175 VoIP Media Transmission 176 Real-Time Transport Protocol 177 Real-Time Transport Control Protocol 177 Compressed RTP 178 Secure RTP 179 VoIP Media Considerations 181 Voice Activity Detection 182 Bandwidth Savings 183 Voice Port Settings for VAD 184 Voice Signaling Protocols: H.323 184 H.323 Architecture 184 H.323 Advantages 185 H.323 Network Components 186 H.323 Call Flows 192 H.323 Slow Start Call Setup 193 H.323 Slow Start Call Teardown 194 H.225 RAS Call Setup 196 H.225 RAS Call Teardown 197 Codecs in H.323 199 Negotiation in Slow Start Call Setup 199 H.323 Fast Connect 200 H.323 Early Media 202 Configuring H.323 Gateways 203 H.323 Gateway Configuration Example 203 Customizing H.323 Gateways 204 H.323 Session Transport 204 Idle Connection and H.323 Source IP Address 205 H.225 Timers 205 H.323 Gateway Tuning Example 206 Verifying H.323 Gateways 206 Voice Signaling Protocols: SIP 207 SIP Architecture 207 Signaling and Deployment 208 SIP Architecture Components 208 SIP Servers 209 SIP Architecture Examples 210 SIP Call Flows 211 SIP Call Setup Using Proxy Server 212 SIP Call Setup Using Redirect Server 213 SIP Addressing 214 SIP Addressing Variants Example 214 Address Registration 215 Address Resolution 215 Codecs in SIP 216 Delayed Offer 218 Early Offer 219 Early Media 219 Configuring Basic SIP 221 User Agent Configuration 221 Dial-Peer Configuration 222 Basic SIP Configuration Example 222 Configuring SIP ISDN Support 223 Calling Name Display 223 Blocking and Substituting Caller ID 225 Blocking and Substituting Caller ID Commands 226 Configuring SIP SRTP Support 226 SIPS Global and Dial-Peer Commands 227 SRTP Global and Dial-Peer Commands 228 SIPS and SRTP Configuration Example 228 Customizing SIP Gateways 228 SIP Transport 229 SIP Source IP Address 229 SIP UA Timers 230 SIP Early Media 230 Gateway-to-Gateway Configuration Example 231 UA Example 232 Verifying SIP Gateways 233 SIP UA General Verification 233 SIP UA Registration Status 234 SIP UA Call Information 235 SIP Debugging Overview 236 Examining the INVITE Message 237 Examining the 200 OK Message 237 Examining the BYE Message 238 Voice Signaling Protocols: MGCP 239 MGCP Overview 239 MGCP Advantages 240 MGCP Architecture 240 MGCP Gateways 242 MGCP Call Agents 243 Basic MGCP Concepts 243 MGCP Calls and Connections 243 MGCP Control Commands 244 Package Types 245 MGCP Call Flows 246 Configuring MGCP Gateways 248 MGCP Residential Gateway Configuration Example 249 Configuring an MGCP Trunk Gateway Example 250 Configuring Fax Relay with MGCP Gateways 251 Verifying MGCP 254 Debug Commands 257 VoIP Quality Considerations 257 IP Networking and Audio Clarity 257 Jitter 258 Delay 259 Acceptable Delay 260 Packet Loss 261 VoIP and QoS 262 Objectives of QoS 263 Using QoS to Improve Voice Quality 264 Transporting Modulated Data over IP Networks 265 Differences from Fax Transmission in the PSTN 265 Fax Services over IP Networks 265 Understanding Fax/Modem Pass-Through, Relay, and Store and Forward 266 Fax Pass-Through 266 Modem Pass-Through 268 Fax Relay 269 Modem Relay 270 Store-and-Forward Fax 273 Gateway Signaling Protocols and Fax Pass-Through and Relay 274 Cisco Fax Relay 275 H.323 T.38 Fax Relay 277 SIP T.38 Fax Relay 278 MGCP T.38 Fax Relay 280 Gateway-Controlled MGCP T.38 Fax Relay 281 Call Agent-Controlled MGCP T.38 Fax Relay 281 DTMF Support 281 H.323 DTMF Support 282 MGCP DTMF Support 283 SIP DTMF Support 283 Customization of Dial Peers 284 Configuration Components of VoIP Dial Peer 284 VoIP Dial-Peer Characteristics 284 Configuring DTMF Relay 285 DTMF Relay Configuration Example 286 Configuring Fax/Modem Support 286 Cisco Fax Relay and Fax Pass-Through 287 T.38 Fax Relay Configuration 287 Fax Relay Speed Configuration 288 Fax Relay SG3 Support Configuration 288 Fax Support Configuration Example 289 Configuring Modem Support 289 Modem Pass-Through 289 Modem Relay 290 Modem Relay Compression 290 Modem Pass-Through and Modem Relay Interaction 291 Modem Support Configuration Example 291 Configuring Codecs 291 Codec-Related Dial-Peer Configuration 292 Codec Configuration Example 293 Limiting Concurrent Calls 294 Summary 294 Chapter Review Questions 294 Chapter 3 Supporting Cisco IP Phones with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 297 Introducing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 297 Fundamentals of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 298 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Positioning 298 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Deployment Models 299 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Key Features and Benefits 301 Phone Features 301 System Features 302 Trunk Features 303 Voice-Mail Features 303 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Supported Platforms 303 Cisco Integrated Services Routers Scalability 304 Cisco Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 Scalability 305 Memory Requirements 306 Cisco Integrated Services Routers Licensing and Software 306 Cisco Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 Licensing Model 307 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Operation 308 Operation of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 308 Overview of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoints 309 Endpoint Signaling Protocols 309 Endpoint Capabilities 309 Basic Cisco IP Phone Models 310 Midrange Cisco IP Phones 311 Upper-End Cisco IP Phones 313 Video-Enabled Cisco IP Phones 314 Conference Stations 315 Identifying Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoint Requirements 318 Phone Startup Process 318 Power over Ethernet 322 Two PoE Technologies 322 Cisco Prestandard Device Detection 324 IEEE 802.3af Device Detection 324 Cisco Catalyst Switch: Configuring PoE 324 VLAN Infrastructure 325 Voice VLAN Support 326 Ethernet Frame Types Generated by Cisco IP Phones 329 Blocking PC VLAN Access at IP Phones 330 Limiting VLANs on Trunk Ports at the Switch 330 Configuring Voice VLAN in Access Ports Using Cisco IOS Software 331 Configuring Trunk Ports Using Cisco IOS Software 331 Verifying Voice VLAN Configuration 333 IP Addressing and DHCP 334 DHCP Parameters 335 Router Configuration with an IEEE 802.1Q Trunk 335 Router Configuration with Cisco EtherSwitch Network Module 336 DHCP Relay Configuration 337 Network Time Protocol 337 Endpoint Firmware and Configuration 338 Downloading Firmware 339 Firmware Images 340 Setting Up Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express in an SCCP Environment 340 Configuring Source IP Address and Firmware Association 341 Enabling SCCP Endpoints 342 Locale Parameters 343 Date and Time Parameters 343 Parameter Tuning 344 Generating Configuration Files for SCCP Endpoints 344 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express SCCP Environment Example 346 Setting Up Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express in a SIP Environment 346 Configuring Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express for SIP 347 Configuring Source IP Address and Associating Firmware 347 Enabling SIP Endpoints 348 Locale Parameters 348 Date and Time Parameters 348 NTP and DST Parameters 349 Generating Configuration Files for SIP Endpoints 349 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express SIP Environment Example 350 Configuration of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 350 Directory Numbers and Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 350 Directory Number Types 352 Single- and Dual-Line Directory Numbers 353 Octo-Line Directory Number 354 Nonexclusive Shared-Line Directory Number 355 Exclusive Shared-Line Directory Number 356 Multiple Directory Numbers with One Telephone Number 357 Multiple-Number Directory Number 358 Overlaid Directory Number 358 Creating Directory Numbers for SCCP Phones 359 Single-Line Ephone-dn Configuration 360 Dual-Line Ephone-dn Configuration 360 Octo-Line Ephone-dn Configuration 361 Dual-Number Ephone-dn Configuration 361 Configuring SCCP Phone-Type Templates 362 Configuring SCCP Phone-Type Templates 362 Ephone Template for Conference Station 7937G Configuration Example 364 Creating SCCP Phones 365 Configuring the SCCP Ephone Type 365 Configuring SCCP Ephone Buttons 366 Configuring Ephone Preferred Codec 366 Basic Ephone Configuration Example 367 Multiple Ephone Configuration Example 367 Multiple Directory Numbers Configuration Example 368 Shared Directory Number Configuration Example 369 Controlling Automatic Registration 369 Partially Automated Endpoint Deployment 370 Partially Automated Deployment Example 371 Creating Directory Numbers for SIP Phones 371 Voice Register Directory Number Configuration Example 372 Creating SIP Phones 372 Configuring SIP Phones 373 Tuning SIP Phones 373 Shared Directory Number Configuration Example 374 Configuring Cisco IP Communicator Support 374 Configuring Cisco IP Communicator 375 Managing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoints 375 Rebooting Commands 376 Verifying Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoints 377 Verifying Phone VLAN ID 378 Verifying Phone IP Parameters 378 Verifying Phone TFTP Server 379 Verifying Firmware Files 379 Verifying TFTP Operation 380 Verifying Phone Firmware 381 Verifying SCCP Endpoint Registration 381 Verifying SIP Endpoint Registration 382 Verifying the SIP Registration Process 383 Verifying the SCCP Registration Process 383 Verifying Endpoint-Related Dial Peers 384 Summary 385 Chapter Review Questions 385 Chapter 4 Introducing Dial Plans 389 Numbering Plan Fundamentals 389 Introducing Numbering Plans 389 North American Numbering Plan 390 European Telephony Numbering Space 393 Fixed and Variable-Length Numbering Plan Comparison 394 E.164 Addressing 395 Scalable Numbering Plans 396 Non-Overlapping Numbering Plan 396 Scalable Non-Overlapping Numbering Plan Considerations 398 Overlapping Numbering Plans 398 Overlapping Numbering Plan Example 399 Scalable Overlapping Numbering Plan Considerations 400 Private and Public Numbering Plan Integration 400 Private and Public Numbering Plan Integration Functions 401 Private and Public Numbering Plan Integration Considerations 402 Number Plan Implementation Overview 402 Private Number Plan Implementation Example 403 Public Number Plan Implementation 404 Call Routing Overview 404 Call Routing Example 405 Dial Plan Components 406 Defining Dial Plans 406 Dial Plan Implementation 407 Dial Plan Requirements 407 Endpoint Addressing Considerations 408 Call Routing and Path Selection 409 PSTN Dial Plan Requirements 410 Inbound PSTN Calls 410 Outbound PSTN Calls 412 ISDN Dial Plan Requirements 413 Digit Manipulation 414 Calling Privileges 415 Call Coverage 416 Call Coverage Features 416 Summary 417 Chapter Review Questions 417 Chapter 5 Implementing Dial Plans 421 Configuring Digit Manipulation 421 Digit Collection and Consumption 421 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Addressing Method 422 User Input on SCCP Phones 423 SCCP Digit Collection 424 SIP Digit Collection (Simple Phones) 424 SIP Digit Collection (Enhanced Phones) 425 Dial-Peer Management 426 Digit Manipulation 427 Digit Stripping 429 Digit Forwarding 429 Digit Prefixing 431 Number Expansion 431 Simple Digit Manipulation for POTS Dial Peers Example 432 Number Expansion Example 433 Caller ID Number Manipulation 434 CLID Commands 434 Station ID Commands 434 Displaying Caller ID Information 435 Voice Translation Rules and Profiles 437 Understanding Regular Expressions in Translation Rules 439 Search and Replace with Voice Translation Rules Example 441 Voice Translation Profiles 442 Translation Profile Processing 443 Voice Translation Profile Search-and-Replace Example 444 Voice Translation Profile Call Blocking Example 445 Voice Translation Profiles Versus the dialplan-pattern Command 447 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express with dialplan-pattern Example 447 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express with Voice Translation Profiles Example 448 Verifying Voice Translation Rules 449 Configuring Digit Manipulation 450 Configuring Path Selection 454 Call Routing and Path Selection 454 Dial-Peer Matching 455 Matching to Inbound and Outbound Dial Peers 458 Inbound Dial-Peer Matching 458 Outbound Dial-Peer Matching 459 Dial-Peer Call Routing and Path Selection Commands 459 Matching Dial Peers in a Hunt Group 462 H.323 Dial-Peer Configuration Best Practices 462 Path Selection Strategies 464 Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass 464 Toll-Bypass Example 464 Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass Example 466 Tail-End Hop-Off 467 TEHO Example 467 Configuring Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass 468 Step 1: Create Translation Rules and Profiles 469 Step 2: Define VoIP Dial Peers 470 Step 3: Add Support for PSTN Fallback 471 Step 4: Create a Dial Peer for PSTN Fallback 472 Outbound Site-Code Dialing Example 472 Inbound Site-Code Dialing Example 474 Configuring TEHO 475 Step 1: Define VoIP Outbound Digit Manipulation for TEHO 476 Step 2: Define Outbound VoIP TEHO Dial Peer 476 Step 3: Define Outbound POTS TEHO Dial Peer 476 Complete TEHO Configuration 477 Implementing Calling Privileges on Cisco IOS Gateways 477 Calling Privileges 477 Understanding COR on Cisco IOS Gateways 479 COR Behavior Example 479 COR Example 482 Understanding COR for SRST and CME 483 Configuring COR for Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 485 Step 1: Define COR Labels 485 Step 2: Configure Outbound Corlists 486 Step 3: Configure Inbound Corlists 487 Step 4: Assign Corlists to PSTN Dial Peers 488 Step 5: Assign Corlists to Incoming Dial Peers and Ephone-dns 489 Configuring COR for SRST 490 Verifying COR 491 Summary 492 Chapter Review Questions 493 Chapter 6 Using Gatekeepers and Cisco Unified Border Elements 497 Gatekeeper Fundamentals 497 Gatekeeper Responsibilities 498 Gatekeeper Signaling 500 RAS Messages 501 Gatekeeper Discovery 504 Registration Request 506 Lightweight Registration 506 Admission Request 507 Admission Request Message Failures 507 Information Request 509 Location Request 510 Gatekeeper Signaling: LRQ Sequential 511 Gatekeeper Signaling: LRQ Blast 512 H.225 RAS Intrazone Call Setup 514 H.225 RAS Interzone Call Setup 515 Zones 516 Zone Prefixes 517 Technology Prefixes 518 Configuring H.323 Gatekeepers 520 Gatekeeper Configuration Steps 520 Gateway Selection Process 521 Configuration Considerations 521 Basic Gatekeeper Configuration Commands 522 Configuring Gatekeeper Zones 524 Configuring Zone Prefixes 526 Configuring Technology Prefixes 527 Configuring Gateways to Use H.323 Gatekeepers 529 Dial-Peer Configuration 532 Verifying Gatekeeper Functionality 533 Providing Call Admission Control with an H.323 Gatekeeper 535 Gatekeeper Zone Bandwidth Operation 535 Zone Bandwidth Calculation 536 bandwidth Command 538 Zone Bandwidth Configuration Example 539 Verifying Zone Bandwidth Operation 540 Introducing the Cisco Unified Border Element Gateway 541 Cisco Unified Border Element Overview 541 Cisco UBE Gateways in Enterprise Environments 543 Protocol Interworking on Cisco UBE Gateways 547 Signaling Method Refresher 547 Cisco Unified Border Element Protocol Interworking 548 Media Flows on Cisco UBE Gateways 549 Codec Filtering on Cisco UBEs 550 RSVP-Based CAC on Cisco UBEs 552 RSVP-Based CAC 552 RSVP-Based CAC Call Flow 553 Cisco Unified Border Element Call Flows 554 SIP Carrier Interworking 554 SIP Carrier Interworking Call Flow 554 SIP Carrier Interworking with Gatekeeper-Based CAC Call Setup 555 Configuring Cisco Unified Border Elements 557 Protocol Interworking Command 557 Configuring H.323-to-SIP DTMF Relay Interworking 558 Configuring Media Flow and Transparent Codec 558 media Command 559 codec transparent Command 559 Media Flow-Around and Transparent Codec Example 559 Configuring H.323-to-H.323 Fast-Start-to-Slow-Start Interworking 560 H.323-to-H.323 Interworking Example 560 Verifying Cisco Unified Border Element 560 Debugging Cisco Unified Border Element Operations 562 Viewing Cisco Unified Border Element Calls 562 Summary 563 Chapter Review Questions 563 Chapter 7 Introducing Quality of Service 567 Fundamentals of QoS 567 QoS Issues 567 After Convergence 568 Quality Issues in Converged Networks 570 Bandwidth Capacity 570 End-to-End Delay and Jitter 572 Packet Loss 575 QoS and Voice Traffic 576 QoS Policy 577 QoS for Unified Communications Networks 577 Example: Three Steps to Implementing QoS on a Network 577 QoS Requirements 580 Videoconferencing 580 Data 580 Methods for Implementing QoS Policy 581 Implementing QoS Traditionally Using CLI 581 Implementing QoS with MQC 582 Implementing QoS with Cisco AutoQoS 583 Comparing QoS Implementation Methods 583 QoS Models 584 Best-Effort Model 584 IntServ Model 584 DiffServ Model 585 QoS Model Evaluation 586 Characteristics of QoS Models 587 DiffServ Model 587 DSCP Encoding 589 DiffServ PHBs 590 Expedited Forwarding PHB 590 Assured Forwarding PHB 591 DiffServ Class Selector 593 DiffServ QoS Mechanisms 593 Classification 593 Marking 594 Congestion Management 595 Congestion Avoidance 596 Policing 596 Shaping 597 Compression 598 Link Fragmentation and Interleaving 598 Applying QoS to Input and Output Interfaces 599 Cisco QoS Baseline Model 601 Cisco Baseline Marking 601 Cisco Baseline Mechanisms 602 Expansion and Reduction of the Class Model 603 Summary 603 Chapter Review Questions 604 Chapter 8 Configuring QoS Mechanisms 607 Classification, Marking, and Link-Efficiency QoS Mechanisms 607 Modular QoS CLI 608 Example: Advantages of Using MQC 609 MQC Components 609 Configuring Classification 610 MQC Classification Options 611 Class Map Matching Options 612 Configuring Classification with MQC 613 Configuring Classification Using Input Interface and RTP Ports 614 Configuring Classification Using Marking 615 Class-Based Marking Overview 615 Configuring Class-Based Marking 616 Class-Based Marking Configuration Example 616 Trust Boundaries 617 Trust Boundary Marking 618 Configuring Trust Boundary 619 Trust Boundary Configuration Example 619 Mapping CoS to Network Layer QoS 620 Default LAN Switch Configuration 621 Mapping CoS and IP Precedence to DSCP 621 CoS-to-DSCP Mapping Example 622 DSCP-to-CoS Mapping Example 622 Configuring Mapping 624 Mapping Example 624 Link-Efficiency Mechanisms Overview 625 Link Speeds and QoS Implications 626 Serialization Issues 626 Serialization Delay 627 Link Fragmentation and Interleaving 627 Fragment Size Recommendation 628 Configuring MLP with Interleaving 629 MLP with Interleaving Example 630 Configuring FRF.12 Frame Relay Fragmentation 631 Configuring FRF.12 Fragmentation 632 FRF.12 Configuration Example 632 Class-Based RTP Header Compression 633 RTP Header Compression Example 634 Configuring Class-Based Header Compression 635 Class-Based RTP Header Compression Configuration Example 635 Queuing and Traffic Conditioning 636 Congestion and Its Solutions 637 Congestion and Queuing: Aggregation 637 Queuing Components 638 Software Interfaces 639 Policing and Shaping 640 Policing and Shaping Comparison 641 Measuring Traffic Rates 642 Example: Token Bucket as a Coin Bank 643 Single Token Bucket 644 Class-Based Policing 645 Single-Rate, Dual Token Bucket Class-Based Policing 646 Dual-Rate, Dual Bucket Class-Based Policing 647 Configuring Class-Based Policing 649 Configuring Class-Based Policing 649 Class-Based Policing Example: Single Rate, Single Token Bucket 650 Class-Based Policing Example: Single Rate, Dual Token Bucket 651 Class-Based Shaping 652 Configuring Class-Based Shaping 653 Class-Based Shaping Example 653 Hierarchical Class-Based Shaping with CB-WFQ Example 653 Low Latency Queuing 655 LLQ Architecture 656 LLQ Benefits 656 Configuring LLQ 657 Monitoring LLQ 658 Calculating Bandwidth for LLQ 659 Introduction to Cisco AutoQoS 661 Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 661 Cisco AutoQoS VoIP Functions 662 Cisco AutoQoS VoIP Router Platforms 663 Cisco AutoQoS VoIP Switch Platforms 663 Configuring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 664 Configuring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Routers 665 Configuring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Switches 665 Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 666 Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Routers 666 Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Switches 667 Automation with Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 668 Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise 668 Configuring Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise 670 Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise: Phase 1 672 Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise: Phase 2 672 Summary 673 Chapter Review Questions 673 Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions 677 9781587204197 TOC 4/21/2011