A History of the Roman People

A History of the Roman People

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By (author) Allen Mason Ward, By (author) Fritz Heichelheim, By (author) Cedric Yeo

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  • Publisher: Pearson Education (US)
  • Format: Paperback | 576 pages
  • Dimensions: 175mm x 229mm x 28mm | 726g
  • Publication date: 10 November 2009
  • Publication City/Country: Upper Saddle River
  • ISBN 10: 0205695264
  • ISBN 13: 9780205695263
  • Edition: 5, Revised
  • Edition statement: 5th Revised edition
  • Illustrations note: black & white illustrations, maps
  • Sales rank: 411,837

Product description

For one- and two-semester survey courses in Roman History. The Fifth Edition of A History of the Roman People continues to provide a comprehensive analytical survey of Roman history from its prehistoric roots in Italy and the wider Mediterranean world to the dissolution of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity ca. A.D. 600. Clearly organized and highly readable, the text's narrative of major political and military events provides a chronological and conceptual framework for chapters on social, economic, and cultural developments of the periods covered. Major topics are treated separately so that students can easily grasp key concepts and ideas.

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Table of contents

Maps and Illustrations Preface PART ONE PRE-ROMAN ITALY AND THE RISE OF ROME TO 264 B.C. 1. Roman History: Its Geographic and Human Foundations Introduction to Roman History Geography The Site of Rome The Peoples and Cultures of Pre-Roman Italy The Peoples of Italy ca. 750 to 400 B.C. 2. Phoenicians, Greeks, and Etruscans in Pre-Roman Italy The Phoenicians Tyre and Its Colonies Greek Colonization Decline of the Greek Cities in Italy and Sicily The Etruscans The Land of the Etruscans Sources for Etruscan History Etruscan Economic Life Etruscan Cities and Their Sociopolitical Organization Women and the Etruscan Family Etruscan Culture and Religion Etruscan Art and Architecture The Role of the Etruscans in Roman History The Fate of the Etruscans 3. Early Rome to 500 B.C. The Ancient Literary Tradition and Its Sources Reconstructing Early Roman History The Early Roman State 4. Early Roman Society, Religion, and Values The Principle of Hierarchy The Family Patrons and Clients Slaves and Freedmen Roman Names and the Gens Patrician and Nonpatrician Gentes Classes in Roman Society The Openness of Early Roman Society to Outsiders Early Roman Religion The State and Religion The Values of Early Roman Society 5. The Evolution of the Roman Republican Constitution, 509 to 287 B.C. Sources of Information for Early Republican History From Kingship to Republic The Early Form of the Republic The Priesthoods and Priestly Colleges Social and Political Conflicts, 509 to 287 B.C. Creation of Separate Plebeian Identity and Institutions The Decemvirs and the Laws of the Twelve Tables Post-Decemviral Developments A New Period of Reform The Creation of a New Nobility Further Changes in Public Offices The Oligarchic Realities of the Roman Republican Constitution after 287 B.C. 6. The Roman Conquest of Italy and Its Impact, 509 to 264 B.C. Conflicts with Immediate Neighbors The Gallic Sack of Rome Up from the Ashes Initial Conquests in Central Italy The Roman System of Alliances and Citizen Communities The Final Conquest of Central Italy The Pyrrhic Wars and the Conquest of Southern Italy The Economic, Social, and Cultural Impact of Roman Expansion in Italy by 264 B.C. How to Explain Rome's Conquests PART TWO THE HIGH POINT OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC, 264 to 133 B.C. 7. The First Punic War, Northern Italy, and Illyrian Pirates, 264 to 219 B.C. Sources for Roman History from 264 to 133 B.C. A New Chapter in Rome's Expansion Carthage Sicily and the Outbreak of the First Punic War, 264 B.C. Initial Carthaginian Setbacks, 263 and 262 B.C. Expansion of the War A Titanic Struggle, 260 to 241 B.C. The Truceless War and Roman Trickery, 241 to 238 B.C. Roman Conquests in Northern Italy The Pirates of Illyria, 229 and 228 B.C. Renewed War with the Gauls, 225--220 B.C. Pirates Again, 220 to 219 B.C. Expansion of the War 94 Rome's Rise Surveyed 8. War with Hannibal: The Second Punic War, 218 to 201 B.C. Carthaginian Recovery after 238 B.C. The Ebro Treaty Hannibal and the Outbreak of the Second Punic War Causes of the Second Punic War Hannibal's War Strategy Roman War Plans Hannibal's March to the Alps Hannibal's Early Victories, 218 and 217 B.C. Fabius Maximus, Cunctator, 217 B.C. The Battle of Cannae, 216 B.C. The Roman Recovery The First Macedonian War, 215 to 205 B.C. The War in Spain, 218 to 211 B.C. Scipio Africanus The Battle at the Metaurus and the Death of Hasdrubal, 207 B.C. The End Approaches The Battle of Zama (Naraggara), 202 B.C. Peace Terms Reasons for Roman Success The Fate of Hannibal 9. Roman Imperialism East and West, 200 to 133 B.C. Provincial Governors Roman Imperialism in the East Antiochus III (the Great) of Syria and Philip V of Macedon The Second Macedonian War, 200 to 196 B.C. The Aggressions of Antiochus III (the Great), 196 to 192 B.C. The War With Antiochus III (the Great), 192 to 188 B.C. The Third Macedonian War, 171 to 168/7 B.C. Rome and the Hellenistic East After Pydna (168 B.C.) Roman Imperialism in the West, 200 to 133 B.C. Northern Italy Successes and Failures in Spain The Third Punic War, 149 to 146 B.C. The Viriathic and Numantine Wars in Spain, 151 to 133 B.C. 10. The Transformation of Roman Life, 264 to 133 B.C. The Impact of War and Overseas Expansion on Small Farmers The Growth of Trade, Cities, Industry, and Commerce Coinage and the Monetization of the Economy Social Change and Discontent Political Developments 11. The Great Cultural Synthesis, 264 to 133 B.C. Architecture and Art Literature Specialization after Ennius Prose Literature Philosophy Law Religion Education PART THREE THE WORLD OF THE LATE REPUBLIC, 133 to 30 B.C. 12. The Gracchi and the Struggle over Reforms, 133 to 121 B.C. Sources for the Period of the Gracchi, 133 to 121 B.C. Mounting Problems 152 The Tribuneship of Tiberius Gracchus, 133 B.C. Tiberius' Motives The Land Commission and Its Impact Rome's Allies and the Death of Scipio Gaius Gracchus,Tribune of the Plebs, 123 to 122 B.C. The Reforms of Gaius Gracchus Livius Drusus The Fall and Death of Gaius Gracchus The Popularis Political Legacy of the Gracchi 13. The Breakdown of the System and the Career of Marius, 121 to 88 B.C. Sources for the Period from 121 to 88 B.C. Populares and Optimates The Senatus Consultum Ultimum Post-Gracchan Land Legislation The Imperial Background to Domestic Affairs The Popularis Rise of Gaius Marius (157 to 86 B.C.) The Slave Revolt in Sicily, 104 to 100 B.C. Piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean The Political Fall of Marius A Decade of Optimate Domination The Explosive Reforms of M. Livius Drusus the Younger, 91 B.C. The Italian, or Social,War, 90 to 88 B.C. The Aftermath of the Social War 14. Civil War and Sulla's Reactionary Settlement, 88 to 78 B.C. Sources for the Years 88 to 78 B.C. Mithridates VI Eupator (134 to 63 B.C.) The Rise of Sulla (138 to 78 B.C.) Cinna's Consulship, 87 B.C. Marius and His Reign of Terror The Significance of Marius Cinna's Time (Cinnanum Tempus) Sulla and the East, 87 to 84 B.C. Sulla's Return to Italy, 83 to 82 B.C. Sulla's Reign of Terror, 82 B.C. Sulla's Dictatorship and Political Reforms The Failure of Sulla 15. Personal Ambitions: The Failure of Sulla's Optimate Oligarchy, 78 to 60 B.C. Sources for Roman History from 78 to 30 B.C. The Rise of Pompey the Great (106 to 48 B.C.) 78 to 71 B.C. The Great (Third) Mithridatic War (74/3 to 63 B.C.) and Lucullus' Bid for Glory, 74 to 66 B.C. Crassus Seeks Advantage in the Slave War against Spartacus in Italy, 73 to 71 B.C. The Consulship of Pompey and Crassus, 70 B.C. Cicero Gains Fame in the Trial of Verres, 70 B.C. Tribunes Make Their Marks and Pompey Takes Control of the East, 67 to 62 B.C. Rome in the Absence of Pompey After Pompey's Return, 62 to 60 B.C. 16. Caesar Wins and Is Lost, 60 to 44 B.C. Caesar Partners with Pompey and Crassus, 60 to 58 B.C. Gaul and the Foundation of Caesar's Might, 58 to 56 B.C. Disorder at Rome and a Renewed Partnership, 58 to 56 B.C. Caesar Overcomes Challenges in Gaul, 56 to 52 B.C. Caesar's Partners Strive to Keep up, 56 to 53 B.C. Rivalry and Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, 53 to 48 B.C. Caesar's Dictatorships and Final Victory, 48 to 45 B.C. Caesar's Work of Reconstruction The Assassination of Julius Caesar, March 15, 44 B.C. The Question of Monarchy The Significance of Caesar 17. The Last Years of the Republic, 44 to 30 B.C. 215 Marcus Antonius Tries to Take Control, 44 to 43 B.C. The Triumvirate of Octavian, Antonius, and Lepidus, 43 to 36 B.C. Antonius and Cleopatra Rule the East, 37 to 32 B.C. The Approach and Renewal of Civil War, 32 to 30 B.C. The End of the Republic 18. Social, Economic, and Cultural Life in the Late Republic, ca. 133 to ca. 30 B.C. Land,Veterans, and Rural Life Industry and Commerce The Concentration of Wealth Life for the Urban Poor Slaves and Freedmen Italians and Provincials Women in the Late Republic New Waves of Hellenization Education Law and the Legal System The Religious World of the Late Republic Greek Philosophy and the Roman Elite Art and Architecture Late Republican Literature from the Gracchi to Sulla The Novi Poetae Catullus (ca. 85 to ca. 54 B.C.) Lucretius (ca. 94 to ca. 55 B.C.) Cicero (106 to 43 B.C.) Sallust (86 to ca. 34 B.C.) Caesar (100 to 44 B.C.) Scholarship and Patriotic Antiquarianism The Cultural Legacy of the Late Republic PART FOUR THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE, 29 B.C. to A.D. 19. The Principate Takes Shape, 29 B.C. to A.D. 14 Sources for the Augustan Principate Hopes for Peace Problems to be Faced Octavian's Advantages The Evolving Constitutional Arrangements of the Principate The Nature of the Principate The Creation of a Central Administration Social Reforms Religious Reforms Augustus' Success 20. Imperial Stabilization under Augustus Military Reforms Protection of the Emperor Fiscal Reforms Provincial Reforms Conquests in the West Crete, and Cyrene Holding the East Road Building The Imperial Post (Cursus Publicus) Colonization Urbanization of the Provinces Growth of the Imperial Cult Solidifying Control of the Balkans The Problem of Succession The Death of Augustus 21. The Impact of Augustus on Roman Imperial Life and Culture The Population and Economic Impact of Rome Agriculture Agricultural Wealth and Urbanization Cities of Italy and the Empire Nonagricultural Trade and Industry The Roman Imperial Coinage Architecture and Art Literature Vergil (70 to 19 B.C.) Horace (65 to 8 B.C.) The Latin Elegists Latin Prose Writers The Impact of Augustus on Latin Literature Greek Writers Scholarly and Technical Writings Law and Jurisprudence The Augustan Achievement 22. The First Two Julio--Claudian Emperors: Tiberius and Gaius (Caligula), A.D. 14 to 41 Sources for the Julio-Claudians The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (Chart) Tiberius (A.D. 14 to 37) Germanicus Sejanus The Law of Treason (Maiestas) Tiberius and the Senate: The Increasing Power of the Princeps Tiberius the Administrator Tiberius' Last Years and the Succession Gaius Caligula (A.D. 37 to 41) A Popular Princeps at First Problems in the Palace Tensions with the Senate Caligula's Military Operations Fiscal Problems Caligula's Foreign and Provincial Policies Caligula's Religious Policies Caligula's Assassination 23. Claudius, Nero, and the End of the Julio-Claudians, A.D. 41 to 68 Claudius (A.D. 41 to 54) The Political Philosophy and Policies of Claudius Foreign Policy and Imperial Defense Colonization, Urbanization, and Romanization in the Provinces Claudius' Wives Claudius' Death and the Succession of Nero (A.D. 54 to 68) The Darker Side of Nero's Early Reign Nero Asserts Himself Growing Hostility toward Nero Plots against the Throne Prelude to a Fall The Jewish Revolt and the Fall of Nero 24. The Crisis of the Principate and Recovery under the Flavians, A.D. 69 to 96 Sources Galba (68 to 69) Otho (69) Vitellius (69) Vespasian (69 to 79) The Restoration of Peace Reform of the Army War and Rebellion, 82 to 93 Provincial Policy The Near East Vespasian's Relations with the Senate The Expansion of Executive Power Fiscal Administration The Opposition to Vespasian Vespasian's Death Titus (79 to 81) Domitian (81 to 96) War and Rebellion, 82 to 93 Fear, Purges, and the Murder of Domitian, 89 to 96 25. The Five "Good" Emperors of the Second Century, A.D. 96 to 180 Sources Nerva (96 to 98) Trajan (98 to 117) A Model Emperor Trajan's Wars The Death of Trajan, 117 The Effects of Trajan's Wars Hadrian (117 to 138) The Early Years of Hadrian's Principate Hadrian's Travels The Jewish Revolt New Directions under Hadrian The Last Years of Hadrian Antoninus Pius (138 to 161) Maintaining the Status Quo The Legacy of Antoninus Marcus Aurelius (161 to 180) Persecution of the Christians Marcus Aurelius as Emperor and Soldier The Question of Succession Problems for the Future 26. Imperial Culture and Society in the First Two Centuries A.D. Post-Augustan Imperial Literature Poverty of Literature under Tiberius and Caligula The Blossoming of the Silver Age in Literature Under Claudius and Nero Technical Writing and Scholarship Science and Medicine Philology and Literary Scholarship Lack of Great Literature under the Flavians, A.D. 69 to 96 Resurgence of Literature under the "Good" Emperors Resurgence of Greek Literature The Second Sophistic Christian Writers Philosophy Religious Trends Judaism Mystery Cults Christianity Roman Architecture in the First Two Centuries A.D. Architecture in the Provinces Sculpture Painting Mosaics, Coins, and Medallions Social Developments Economic Trends Inherent Economic and Fiscal Weakness of the Roman Empire PART FIVE CRISIS, CONTINUITY, AND CHANGE IN THE THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES, A.D. 180 to 395 27. Conflicts and Crises under Commodus and the Severi, A.D. 180 to 235 Sources for Roman History, A.D. 180 to 285 Commodus (180 to 192) Pertinax (January 1 to March 28, 193) Didius Julianus (March 28 to June 1, 193) The Accession of Septimius Severus (193 to 211) New Sources of Imperial Authority and Legitimacy Systematic Reform Imperial Wars and Defense, 197 to 201/2 Roman Interlude, 203 to 207 The War in Britain, 208 to 211 Caracalla (211 to 217) Macrinus (217 to 218) Impressive Syrian Queens Elagabalus (218 to 222) Severus Alexander (222 to 235) 28. The Third-Century Anarchy, A.D. 235 to 285 Reasons for the Crisis The Emperors of Troubled Times The Nightmare Begins, 235 to 253 The Age of Gallienus, 253 to 268 The Reforms of Gallienus An Assessment of Gallienus Initial Recovery under Illyrian Soldier Emperors, 268 to 275 The Nightmare Resumes, 275 to 285 29. Changes in Roman Life and Culture During the Third Century Economic Life Social Trends Third-Century Cultural Life Religion Science and Philosophy Education and the World of Letters Art and Architecture Summary and Prospect 30. Diocletian: Creating the Fourth-Century Empire, A.D. 285 to 305 406 Sources for Roman History During the Fourth Century A.D. The Rise of Diocletian The Tetrarchy: A New Form of Imperial Rule, 293 to 312 Diocletian's Other Reforms Persecution of the Christians The Abdication 31. Constantine the Great and Christianity, A.D. 306 to 337 418 The Rise of Constantine, 306 to 312 A Victory for Christianity Constantine and Licinius: The Empire Divided, 313 to 324 The Donatist Schism The Arian Heresy The Defeat and Death of Licinius, 324 The Council of Nicaea, 325 Constantine's Secular Policies The Founding of Constantinople, 324 to 330 The Death of Constantine the Great, 337 32. From Constantine's Dynasty to Theodosius the Great, A.D. 337 to 395 Murder and Civil War The Empire under Constantius II Julian the Apostate Emperor (361 to 363) Jovian (June 363 to February 364) Valentinian I (364 to 375) and Valens (364 to 378) Gratian (375 to 383) and Theodosius the Great (379 to 395) The Death of Theodosius and the Division of the Empire, 395 33. The Evolving World of Late Antiquity in the Fourth Century A.D. 437 Economic Conditions The Social Context Private Life 34. Christianity and Classical Culture in the Fourth Century Christianity and the Expansion of Classical Culture The Educated World of Letters Christian Literature of the Fourth Century Fourth-Century Art and Architecture PART SIX THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ROMAN WORLD IN LATE ANTIQUITY, A.D. 395 to 602 35. Germanic Takeover in the West and Imperial Survival in the East, A.D. 395 to 518 Sources for Roman History from 395 to 518 Western Weaknesses and Eastern Strengths Stilicho and Alaric, 395 to 410 The Visigothic Migration and Settlement after Alaric The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi Galla Placidia,Valentinian III, and Aetius Attila the Hun, 443 to 454 The Burgundians The Franks Angles, Saxons, and Jutes The Vandals in Africa The End of Imperial Power in the West, 454 to 500 Weak Men and Powerful Women:The Theodosian Dynasty in the East, 395 to 450 Persians and Huns, 408 to 450 Christian Controversies and Imperial Politics German and Isaurian Generals Pulcheria and Marcian (450 to 457) Leo I (457 to 474) Leo II (473 to 474) and Zeno (474 to 491) Religious Controversies Continued Anastasius (491 to 518) 36. Justin, Justinian, and the Impossible Dream of Universal Empire, A.D. 518 to 602 486 Sources for the Period of Justin and Justinian The Reign of Justin (518 to 527) Justinian (527 to 565) Theodora Religious Policies of Theodora and Justinian Legal Reforms Administrative Reforms John the Cappadocian The First Persian War, 527 to 532 The Nika Rebellion of the Blue and Green Circus Factions, 532 The Rebuilding of Constantinople Reconquest of the North African Provinces, 533 to 534 Italy is Invaded, 536 to 540 Troubles in North Africa The Second Persian War, 540 to 562 Resumption of War in Italy, 541 to 543 Troubles Everywhere Belisarius Returns to Face Totila in Italy, 544 to 549 The Lazic War, 549 to 557 Peace in the East Disaster in Italy, 549 to 551 The Recovery of Italy, 552 to 562 Wars on Other Fronts, 544 to 561 Justinian's Legacy and Successors, 565 to 602 37. The Transformation of the Late Antique Roman World, A.D. 395 to 600 The Economy Social and Demographic Changes Religion The New Cultural Spirit Art and Architecture 38. The Church and the Legacy of Rome Transmitting the Roman Classical Legacy The Imperial Church The Rise of Rome Bibliography Index