The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: v. 2

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: v. 2

Paperback Penguin Classics

By (author) Edward Gibbon, Edited by David Womersley

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  • Publisher: PENGUIN CLASSICS
  • Format: Paperback | 1024 pages
  • Dimensions: 128mm x 196mm x 42mm | 662g
  • Publication date: 1 August 1996
  • Publication City/Country: London
  • ISBN 10: 0140433945
  • ISBN 13: 9780140433944
  • Edition: 2, Revised
  • Edition statement: 2nd Revised edition
  • Sales rank: 116,099

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Edward Gibbon's six-volume History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-88) is among the most magnificent and ambitious narratives in European literature. Its subject is the fate of one of the world's greatest civilizations over thirteen centuries - its rulers, wars and society, and the events that led to its disastrous collapse. Here, in volumes three and four, Gibbon vividly recounts the waves of barbarian invaders under commanders such as Alaric and Attila, who overran and eventually destroyed the West. He then turns his gaze to events in the East, where even the achievements of the Byzantine emperor Justinian and the campaigns of the brilliant military leader Belisarius could not conceal the fundamental weaknesses of their empire.

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Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), English historian. It was on a visit to Rome that he conceived the idea of his magnificent and panoramic history The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (6 vol., 1776-88) which won immediate acclaim, despite some harsh criticism. Gibbon himself was assured of the greatness of his work, which is, indeed, one of the most-read historical works of modern times.

Table of contents

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Volume IIChapter XXVII Death of Gratian—Ruin of Arianism.—St. Ambrose.—First civil War againt Maximus.—Character, Administration and Pennance of Theodosius.—Death of Valentinian II.—Second civil War, againt Eugenius.—Death of Theodosius. A.D. 379-383. Character and Conduct of the Emperor Gratian. His Defects 383 Discontent of the Roman Troops. Revolt of Maximus in Britain. Flight and Death of Gratian 383-387. Treaty of Peace between Maximus and Theodosius 380 Baptism and orthodox Edicts of Theodosius 340-380. Arianism of Constantinople 378 Gregory Nazianzen accepts the mission of Constantinople 380 Ruin of Arianism at Constantinople 381 In the East. The Council of Constantinople. Retreat of Gregory Nazianzen 380-394. Edicts of Theodosius against the Heretics 385 Execution of Priscillian and his Associates 375-397. Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan 385 His successful Opposition to the Empress Justina 387 Maximus invades Italy. Flight of Valentinian. Theodosius takes Arms in the Cause of Valentinian 388 Defeat and Death of Maximus. Virtues of Theodosius. Faults of Theodosius 387 The Sedition of Antioch. Clemency of Theodosius 390 Sedition and Massacre of Thessalonica 388 Influence and Conduct of Ambrose 390 Pennance of Theodosius 388-391. Generosity of Theodosius 391 Character of Valentinian 392 His Death 392-394. Usurpation of Eugenius. Theodosius prepares for War 394 His Victory over Eugenius 395 Death of Theodosius. Corruption of the Times. The Infantry lay aside their Armour Chapter XXVII Final Destruction of Paganism.—Introduction of the Worship of Saints, and Relics, among the Christians. A.D. 378-395. The Destruction of the Pagan Religion. State of Paganism at Rome. 384 Petition of the Senate for the Altar of Victory 388 Conversion of Rome 381 Destruction of the Temples in the Provinces. The Temple of Serapis at Alexandria 389 Its final Destruction 390 The Pagan Religion is prohibited. Oppressed 390-420. Finally extinguished. The Worship of the Christian Martyrs. General Reflections I. Fabulous Martyrs and Relics II. Miracles III. Revival of Polytheism IV. Introduction of Pagan Ceremonies Chapter XXIX Final Division of the Roman Empire between the Sons of Theodosius—Reign of Arcadius and Honorius—Administration of Rufinus and Stilicho.—Revolt and Defeat of Gildo in Africa. A.D. 395 Division of the Empire between Arcadius and Honorius 386-395. Character and Administration of Rufinus 395 He oppresses the East. He is disappointed, by the Marriage of Arcadius. Character of Stilicho, the Minister, and General of the Western Empire 385-408. His Military Command 395 The Fall and Death of Rufinus 396 Discord of the two Empires 386-398. Revolt of Gildo in Africa 397 He is condemned by the Roman Senate 398 The African War 398 Defeat and Death of Gildo 398 Marriage, and Character of Honorius Chapter XXX Revolt of the Goths.—They plunder Greece. Two great Invasions of Italy by Alaric and Radagaisus.—They are repulsed by Stilicho.—The Germans over-run Gaul.—Usurpation of Constantine in the West.—Disgrace and Death of Stilicho. A.D. 395 Revolt of the Goths 396 Alaric marches into Greece 397 He is attacked by Stilicho. Escapes to Epirus 398 Alaric is declared Master-general of the eastern Illyricum. Is proclaimed King of the Visigoths 400-403. He invades Italy 403 Honorius flies from Milan. He is pursued and besieged by the Goths. Battle of Pollentia. Boldness and Retreat of Alaric 404 The Triumph of Honorius at Rome. The Gladiators abolished. Honorius fixes his Residence at Ravenna 400 The Revolutions of Scythia 405 Emigration of the northern Germans 406 Radagaisus invades Italy. Besieges Florence. Threatens Rome. Defeat and Destruction of his Army by Stilicho. The Remainder of the Germans invade Gaul 407 Desolation of Gaul. Revolt of the British Army. Constantine is acknowledged in Britain and Gaul 408 He reduces Spain 404-408. Negociation of Alaric and Stilicho 408 Debates of the Roman Senate. Intrigues of the Palace. Disgrace and Death of Stilicho. His Memory persecuted. The Poet Claudian among the Train of Stilicho's Dependents Chapter XXXI Invasion of Italy by Alaric.—Manners of the Roman Senate and People.—Rome is thrice besieged, and at length pillaged by the Goths.—Death of Alaric.—The Goths evacuate Italy.—Fall of Constantine.—Gaul and Spain are occupied by the Barbarians.—Independence of Britain. A.D. 408 Weakness of the Court of Ravenna. Alaric marches to Rome. Hannibal at the Gates of Rome. Genealogy of the Senators. The Anician Family. Wealth of the Roman Nobles. Their Manners. Character of the Roman Nobles, by Ammianus Marcellinus. State and Character of the People of Rome. Public Distribution of Bread, Bacon, Oil, Wine, &c. Use of the public Baths. Games and Spectacles. Populousness of Rome. First Siege of Rome by the Goths. Famine. Plague. Superstition 409 Alaric accepts a Ransom, and raises the Siege. Fruitless Negociations for Peace. Change and Succession of Ministers. Second Siege of Rome by the Goths. Attalus is created Emperor by the Goths and Romans 410 He is degraded by Alaric. Third Siege and Sack of Rome by the Goths. Respect of the Goths for the Christian Religion. Pillage and Fire of Rome. Captives and Fugitives. Sack of Rome by the Troops of Charles V. Alaric evacuates Rome and ravages Italy 408-412. Possession of Italy by the Goths 410 Death of Alaric 412 Adolphus, King of the Goths, concludes a Peace with the Empire, and marches into Gaul 414 His Marriage with Placidia. The Gothic Treasures 410-417. Laws for the Relief of Italy and Rome 413 Revolt and Defeat of Heraclian, Count of Africa 409-413. Revolutions of Gaul and Spain. Character and Victories of the General Constantius 411 Death of the Usurper Constantine 411-416. Fall of the Usurpers, Jovinus, Sebastian, and Attalus 409 Invasion of Spain by the Suevi, Vandals, Alani, &c. 414 Adolphus, King of Goths, marches into Spain 415 His Death 415-418. The Goths conquer and restore Spain 419 Their Establishment in Aquitain. The Burgundians 420, &c. State of the Barbarians in Gaul 409 Revolt of Britain and Armorica 409-449. State of Britain 418 Assembly of the Seven Provinces of Gaul Chapter XXXII Arcadius Emperor of the East.—Administration and Disgrace of Eutropius.—Revolt of Gainas.—Persecution of St. John Chrysostom.—Theodosius II. Emperor of the East.—His Sister Pulcheria.—His Wife Eudocia.—The Persian War, and Division of Armenia. A.D. 395-1453. The Empire of the East 395-408. Reign of Arcadius 395-399. Administration and Character of Eutropius. His Venality and Injustice. Ruin of Abundantius. Destruction of Timasius 397 A cruel and unjust Law of Treason 399 Rebellion of Tribigild. Fall of Eutropius 400 Conspiracy and Fall of Gainas 398 Election and Merit of St. John Chrysostom 398-403. His Administration and Defects 403 Chrysostom is persecuted by the Empress Eudocia. Popular Tumults at Constantinople 404 Exile of Chrysostom 407 His Death 438 His Relics transported to Constantinople 408 Death of Arcadius. His supposed Testament 408-415. Administration of Anthemius 414-453. Character and Administration of Pulcheria. Education and Character of Theodosius the Younger 421-460. Character and Adventures of the Empress Eudocia 422 The Persian War 431-440. Armenia divided between the Persians and the Romans Chapter XXXIII Death of Honorius.—Valentinian III. Emperor of the West.—Administration of his Mother Placidia.—Ætius and Boniface.—Conquest of Africa by the Vandals. A.D. 423 Last Years and Death of Honorius 423-425. Elevation and Fall of the Usurper John 425-455. Valentinian III. Emperor of the West 425-450. Administration of his Mother Placidia. Her two Generals, #&198;tius and Boniface 427 Error and Revolt of Boniface in Africa 428 He invites the Vandals. Genseric king of the Vandals 429 He lands in Africa. Reviews his Army. The Moors. The Donatists 430 Tardy Repentance of Boniface. Desolation of Africa. Siege of Hippo. Death of St. Augustin 431 Defeat and Retreat of Boniface 432 His Death 431-439. Progress of the Vandals in Africa 439 They surprise Carthage. African Exiles and Captives. Fable of the Seven Sleepers Chapter XXXIV The Character, Conquests, and Court of Attila, King of the Huns.—Death of Theodosius the Younger.—Elevation of Marcian to the Empire of the East. A.D. 376-433. The Huns. Their Establishment in modern Hungary 433-453. Reign of Attila. His Figure and Character. He discovers the Sword of Mars. Acquires the Empire of Scythia and Germany 430-440. The Huns invade Persia 441, &c. They attack the Eastern Empire. Ravage Europe, as far as Constantinople. The Scythian, or Tartar Wars. State of the Captives 446 Treaty of Peace between Attila, and the Eastern Empire. Spirit of the Azimuntines. Embassies from Attila to Constantinople 448 The Embassy of Maximin to Attila. The royal Village and Palace. The Behaviour of Attila to the Roman Ambassadors. The royal Feasts. Conspiracy of the Romans against the Life of Attila. He reprimands, and forgives the Emperor 450 Theodosius the Younger dies. Is succeeded by Marcian Chapter XXXV Invasion of Gaul by Attila.—He is repulsed by Ætius and the Visigoths.—Attila invades and evacuates Italy.—The Deaths of Attila, Ætius, and Valentinian the Third A.D. 450 Attila threatens both Empires, and prepares to invade Gaul 433-454. Character and Administration of Ætius. His Connection with the Huns and Alani 419-451. The Visigoths in Gaul under the Reign of Theodoric 435-439. The Goths besiege Narbonne, &c. 420-451. The Franks in Gaul under the Merovingian Kings. The Adventures of the Princess Honoria 451 Attila invades Gaul and besieges Orleans. Alliance of the Romans and Visigoths. Attila retires to the Plains of Champagne. Battle of Châlons. Retreat of Attila 452 Invasion of Italy by Attila. Foundation of the Republic of Venice. Attila gives Peace to the Romans 453 The Death of Attila. Destruction of his Empire 454 Valentinian murders the Patrician Ætius. ravishes the Wife of Maximus 455 Death of Valentinian. Symptoms of the Decay and Ruin of the Roman Government Chapter XXXVI Sack of Rome by Genseric, King of the Vandals.—His naval Depredations.—Succession of the last Emperors of the West, Maximus, Avitus, Majorian, Severus, Anthemius, Olybrius, Glycerius, Nepos, Augustulus.—Total Extinction of the Western Empire.—Reign of Odoacer, the first Barbarian King of Italy. A.D. 439-445. Naval Power of the Vandals 455 The Character and Reign of the Emperor Maximus. His Death. Sack of Rome by the Vandals. The Emperor Avitus 453-466. Character of Theodoric, King of the Visigoths 456 His Expedition into Spain. Avitus is deposed 457 Character and Elevation of Majorian 457-461. His Salutary Laws. The Edifices of Rome 457 Majorian prepares to invade Africa. The Loss of his Fleet 461 His Death 461-467. Ricimer reigns under the Name of Severus. Revolt of Marcellinus in Dalmatia. of Ætius, in Gaul 361-467. Naval War of the Vandals 462, &C. Negocations with the Eastern Empire 457-474. Leo, Emperor of the East 467-472. Anthemius, Emperor of the West. The Festival of the Lupercalia 468 Preparations against the Vandals of Africa. Failure of the Expedition 462-472. Conquests of the Visigoths in Spain and Gaul 468 Trial of Arvandus 471 Discord of Anthemius and Ricimer 472 Olybrius, Emperor of the West. Sack of Rome, and Death of Anthemius. Death of Ricimer. of Olybrius 472-475. Julius Nepos and Glycerius, Emperors of the West 475 The Patrician Orestes 476 His Son Augustulus, the last Emperor of the West 476-490. Odoacer, King of Italy 476 or 479. Extinction of the Western Empire. Augustus is banished to the Lucullan Villa. Decay of the Roman Spirit 476-490. Character and Reign of Odoacer. Miserable State of Italy Chapter XXXVII Origin, Progress, and Effects of the monastic Life.—Conversion of the Barbarians to Christianity and Arianism.—Persecution of the Vandals in Africa.—Extinction of Arianism among the Barbarians. A.D. I. Institution of the Monastic Life Origin of the Monks 305 Antony, and the Monks of Egypt 341 Propagation of the monastic Life at Rome 328 Hilarion in Palestine 360 Basil in Pontus 370 Martin in Gaul. Causes of the rapid Progress of the monastic Life. Obedience of the Monks. Their Dress and Habitations. Their Diet. Their manual Labour. Their Riches. Their Solitude. Their Devotion and Visions. The Coenobites and Anachorets 395-451. Simeon Stylites. Miracles and Worship of the Monks. Superstition of the Age II. Conversion of the Barbarians 360, &c. Ulphilas, Apostle of the Goths 400, &c.The Goths, Vandals, Burgundians, &c. embrace Christianity. Motives of their Faith. Effects of their Conversion. They are involved in the Arian Heresy. General Toleration. Arian Persecution of the Vandals 429-477. Genseric 477 Hunneric 484 Gundamund 496 Thorismund 523 Hilderic 530 Gelimer. A general View of the Persecution in Africa. Catholic Frauds. Miracles 500-700. The Ruin of Arianism among the Barbarians 577-584. Revolt and Martyrdom of Hermenegild in Spain 586-589. Conversion of Recared and the Visigoths of Spain 600, &c. Conversion of the Lombards of Italy 612-712. Persecution of the Jews in Spain. Conclusion Chapter XXXVIII Reign and Conversion of Clovis.—His Victories over the Alemanni, Burgundians, and Visigoths.—Establishment of the French Monarchy in Gaul.—Laws of the Barbarians.—State of the Romans.—The Visigoths of Spain.—Conquest of Britain by the Saxons. A.D. The Revolution of Gaul 476-485. Euric, King of the Visigoths 481-511. Clovis, King of the Franks 486 His Victory over Syagrius 496 Defeat and Submission of the Alemanni. Conversion of Clovis 497, &c. Submission of the Armoricans and the Roman Troops 499 The Burgundian War 500 Victory of Clovis 532 Final Conquest of Burgundy by the Franks 507 The Gothic War. Victory of Clovis 508 Conquest of Aquitain by the Franks 510 Consulship of Clovis 536 Final Establishment of the French Monarchy in Gaul. Political Controversy. Laws of the Barbarians. Pecuniary Fines for Homicide. Judgments of God. Judicial Combats. Division of Land by the Barbarians. Domain and Benefices of the Merovingians. Private Usurpations. Personal Servitude. Example of Auvergne. Story of Attalus. Privileges of the Romans of Gaul. Anarchy of the Franks. The Visigoths of Spain. Legislative Assemblies of Spain. Code of the Visigoths. Revolution of Britain 449 Descent of the Saxons 455-582. Establishment of the Saxon Heptarchy. State of the Britons. Their Resistance. Their Flight. The Fame of Arthur. Desolation of Britain. Servitude of the Britons. Manners of the Britons. Obscure or fabulous State of Britain. Fall of the Roman Empire in the West General Observations on the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West Chapter XXXIX Zeno and Anastasius, Emperors of the East.—Birth, Education, and first Exploits of Theodoric the Ostrogoth.—His Invasion and Conquest of Italy.—The Gothic Kingdom of Italy.—State of the West.—Military and Civil Government.—The Senator Boethius.—Last Acts and Death of Theodoric. A.D. 455-475. Birth and Education of Theodoric 474-491. The Reign of Zeno 491-518. of Anastasius 475-488. Service and Revolt of Theodoric 489 He undertakes the Conquest of Italy. His march 489-490. The three Defeats of Odoacer 493 His Capitulation and Death 493-526. Reign of Theodoric, King of Italy. Partition of Lands. Separation of the Goths and Italians. Foreign Policy of Theodoric. His defensive Wars 509 His Naval Armaments. Civil Government of Italy according to the Roman Laws. Prosperity of Rome 500 Visit of Theodoric. Flourishing State of Italy. Theodoric an Arian. His Toleration of the Catholics. Vices of his Government. He is provoked to persecute the Catholics. Character, Studies, and Honours, of Boethius. His Patriotism. He is accused of Treason 524 His Imprisonment and Death 525 Death of Symmachus 526 Remorse and Death of Theodoric Chapter XL Elevation of Justin the Elder.—Reign of Justinian:—I. The Empress Theodora.—II. Factions of the Circus, and Sedition of Constantinople.—III. Trade and Manufacture of Silk.—IV. Finances and Taxes.—V. Edifices of Justinian.—Church of St. Sophia.—Fortifications and Frontiers of the Eastern Empire.—VI. Abolition of the Schools of Athens, and the Consulship of Rome. A.D. 482 or 483. Birth of the Emperor Justinian 518-527. Elevation and Reign of his Uncle Justin I. 520-527. Adoption and Succession of Justinian 527-565. The Reign of Justinian. Character and Histories of Procopius. Division of the Reign of Justinian. Birth and Vices of the Empress Theodora. Her Marriage with Justinian. Her Tyranny. Her Virtues 548 And Death. The Factions of the Circus. At Rome. They distract Constantinople and the East. Justinian favours the Blues 532 Sedition of Constantinople, surnamed Nika. The Distress of Justinian. Firmness of Theodora. The Sedition is suppressed. Agriculture and Manufactures of the Eastern Empire. The Use of Silk by the Romans. Importation from China by Land and Sea. Introduction of Silk-worms into Greece. State of the Revenue. Avarice and Profusion of Justinian. Pernicious Savings. Remittances. Taxes. Monopolies. Venality. Testaments. The Ministers of Justinian. John of Cappadocia. His Edifices and Architects. Foundation of the Church of St. Sophia. Description. Marbles. Riches. Churches and Palaces. Fortifications of Europe. Security of Asia after the Conquest of Isauria. Fortifications of the Empire, from the Euxine to the Persian Frontier 488 Death of Perozes, King of Persia 502-505. The Persian War. Fortifications of Dara. The Caspian or Iberian Gates. The Schools of Athens. They are suppressed by Justinian. Proclus 485-529. His Successors. The last of the Philosophers 541 The Roman Consulship extinguished by Justinian Chapter XLI Conquests of Justinian in the West.—Character and first Campaigns of Belisarius.—He invades and subdues the Vandal Kingdom of Africa.—His Triumph.—The Gothic War.—He recovers Sicily, Naples, and Rome.—Siege of Rome by the Goths.—Their Retreat and Losses.—Surrender of Ravenna.—Glory of Belisarius.—His domestic Shame and Misfortunes. A.D. 533 Justinian resolves to invade Africa 523-530. State of the Vandals. Hilderic 530-534. Gelimer. Debates on the African War. Character and Choice of Belisarius 529-532. His Services in the Persian War 533 Preparations for the African War. Departure of the Fleet. Belisarius lands on the Coast of Africa. Defeats the Vandals in a first Battle. Reduction of Carthage. Final Defeat of Gelimer and the Vandals 534 Conquest of Africa by Belisarius. Distress and Captivity of Gelimer. Return and Triumph of Belisarius 535 His sole Consulship. End of Gelimer and the Vandals. Manners and Defeat of the Moors. Neutrality of the Visigoths 550-620. Conquests of the Romans in Spain 534 Belisarius threatens the Ostrogoths of Italy 522-534. Government and Death of Amalasontha, Queen of Italy 535 Her Exile and Death. Belisarius invades and subdues Sicily 534-536. Reign and Weakness of Theodatus, the Gothic King of Italy 537 Belisarius invades Italy, and reduces Naples 536-540. Vitiges, King of Italy 536 Belisarius enters Rome 537 Siege of Rome by the Goths. Valour of Belisarius. His Defence of Rome. Repulses a general Assault of the Goths. His Sallies. Distress of the City. Exile of Pope Sylverius. Deliverance of the City. Belisarius recovers many Cities of Italy 538 The Goths raise the Siege of Rome. Lose Remini. Retire to Ravenna. Jealousy of the Roman Generals. Death of Constantine. The Eunuch Narses. Firmness and Authority of Belisarius 538, 539. Invasion of Italy by the Franks. Destruction of Milan. Belisarius besieges Ravenna 539 Subdues the Gothic Kingdom of Italy. Captivity of Vitiges 540 Return and Glory of Belisarius. Secret History of his Wife Antonina. Her Lover Theodosius. Resentment of Belisarius and her Son Photius. Persecution of her Son. Disgrace and Submission of Belisarius Chapter XLII State of the Barbaric World.—Establishment of the Lombards on the Danube.—Tribes and Inroads of the Sclavonians. Origin, Empire, and Embassies of the Turks.—The Flight of the Avars.—Chosroes I. or Nushirvan King of Persia.—His prosperous Reign and Wars with the Romans.—The Colchian or Lazic War.—The Æthiopians. A.D. 527-565. Weakness of the Empire of Justinian. State of the Barbarians. The Gepidæ. The Lombards. The Sclavonians. Their Inroads 545 Origin and Monarchy of the Turks in Asia. The Avars fly before the Turks, and approach the Empire 558 Their Embassy to Constantinople 569-582. Embassies of the Turks and Romans500-530. State of Persia 531-579. Reign of Nushirvan, or Chosroes. His Love of Learning 533-539. Peace and War with the Romans 540 He invades Syria. And ruins Antioch 541 Defence of the East by Belisarius. Description of Colchos, Lazica, or Mingrelia. Manners of the Natives. Revolution of Colchos. Under the Persians, before Christ, 500. Under the Romans, before Christ, 60 130 Visit of Arrian 522 Conversion of the Lazi 542-549. Revolt and Repentance of the Colchians 549-551. Siege of Petra 549-556. The Colchian or Lazic War 540-561. Negociations and Treaties between Justinian and Chosroes 522 Conquests of the Abyssinians 533 Their Alliance with Justinian Chapter XLIII Rebellions of Africa.—Restoration of the Gothic Kingdom by Totila.—Loss and Recovery of Rome.—Final Conquest of Italy by Narses.—Extinction of the Ostrogoths.—Defeat of the Franks and Alemanni.—Last Victory, Disgrace and Death of Belisarius.—Death and Character of Justinian.—Comets, Earthquakes, and Plague. A.D. 535-545. The Troubles of Africa 543-558. Rebellion of the Moors 540 Revolt of the Goths 541-544. Victories of Totila, King of Italy. Contrast of Greek Vice and Gothic Virtue 544-548. Second Command of Belisarius in Italy 546 Rome besieged by the Goths. Attempt of Belisarius. Rome taken by the Goths 547 Recovered by Belisarius 548 Final Recal of Belisarius 549 Rome again taken by the Goths. 549-551. Preparations of Justinian for the Gothic War 552 Character and Expedition of the Eunuch Narses. Defeat and Death of Teias, the last King of the Goths. Invasion of Italy by the Franks and Alamanni 554 Defeat of the Franks and Alamanni by Narses 554-568. Settlement of Italy 559 Invasion of the Bulgarians. Last Victory of Belisarius 561 His Disgrace and Death 565 Death and Character of Justinian 531.539. Comets. Earthquakes 542 Plague-its Origin and Nature 542-594. Extent and Duration Chapter XLIV Idea of the Roman Jurisprudence.—The Laws of the Kings.—The Twelve Tables of the Decemvirs.—The Laws of the People.—The Decrees of the Senate.—The Edicts of the Magistrates and Emperors.—Authority of the Civilians.—Code, Pandects, Novels, and Institutes of Justinian:—I. Rights of Persons.—II. Rights of Things.—III. Private Injuries and Actions.—IV. Crimes and Punishments The Civil or Roman Law. Laws of the Kings of Rome. The Twelve Tables of the Decemvirs. Their Character and Influence. Laws of the People. Decrees of the Senate. Edicts of the Prætors. The perpetual Edict. Constitutions of the Emperors. Their Legislative Power. Their Rescripts. Forms of the Roman Law. Succession of the Civil Lawyers A.U.C. 303-648. The first Period 648-988. Second Period 988-1230. Third Period. Their Philosophy. Authority. Sects A.D. 527 Reformation of the Roman Law by Justinian 527-546.Tribonian 528, 529. The Code of Justinian 530-533. The Pandects or Digest. Praise and Censure of the Code and Pandects. Loss of the ancient Jurisprudence. Legal Inconstancy of Justinian 534 Second Edition of the Code 534-565. The Novels 533 The Institutes I. OF PERSONS. Freemen and Slaves. Fathers and Children. Limitations of the paternal Authority. Husbands and Wives. The religious Rites of Marriage. Freedom of the Matrimonial Contract. Liberty and Abuse of Divorce. Limitations of the Liberty of Divorce. Incest, Concubines, and Bastards. Guardians and Wards II. OF THINGS. Right of Property. Of Inheritance and Succession. Civil Degrees of Kindred. Introduction and Liberty of Testaments. Legacies. Codicils and Trusts. III. OF ACTIONS. Promises. Benefits. Interest of Money. Injuries IV. OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. Severity of the Twelve Tables. Abolition or Oblivion of penal Laws. Revival of capital Punishments. Measure of Guilt. Unnatural Vice. Rigour of the Christian Emperors. Judgments of the People. Select Judges. Assessors. Voluntary Exile and Death. Abuses of Civil Jurisprudence Chapter XLV Reign of the younger Justin.—Embassy of the Avars.—Their Settlement on the Danube.—Conquest of Italy by the Lombards.—Adoption and Reign of Tiberius.—Of Maurice.—State of Italy under the Lombards and the Exarchs.—Of Ravenna.—Distress of Rome.—Character and Pontificate of Gregory the First. A.D. 565 Death of Justinian 565-574. Reign of Justin II. or the Younger 566 His Consulship. Embassy of the Avars. Alboin, King of the Lombards—his Valour, Love, and Revenge. The Lombards and Avars destroy the King and Kingdom of the Gepidæ 567 Alboin undertakes the Conquest of Italy. Disaffection and Death of Narses 568-570. Conquest of a great Part of Italy by the Lombards 573 Alboin is murdered by his Wife Rosamond. Her Flight and Death. Clepho, King of the Lombards. Weakness of the Emperor Justin 574 Association of Tiberius 578 Death of Justin II. 578-582. Reign of Tiberius II. His Virtues 582-602. The Reign of Maurice. Distress of Italy 584-590. Autharis, King of the Lombards. The Exarchate of Ravenna. The Kingdom of the Lombards. Language and Manners of the Lombards. Dress and Marriage. Government 643 Laws. Misery of Rome. The Tombs and Relics of the Apostles. Birth and Profession of Gregory the Roman 590-604. Pontificate of Gregory the Great, or First. His spiritual Office. And temporal Government. His Estates. And Alms. The Saviour of Rome Chapter XLVI Revolutions of Persia after the Death of Chosroes or Nushirvan.—His Son Hormouz, a Tyrant, is deposed.—Usurpation of Baharam.—Flight and Restoration of Chosroes II.-His Gratitude to the Romans.—The Chagan of the Avars.—Revolt of the Army against Maurice.—His Death.—Tyranny of Phocas.—Elevation of Heraclius.—The Persian War.—Chosroes subdues Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor.—Siege of Constantinople by the Persians and Avars.—Persian Expeditions.—Victories and Triumph of Heraclius. A.D. Contest of Rome and Persia 570 Conquest of Yemen by Nushirvan 572 His last War with the Romans 579 His Death 579-590. Tyranny and Vices of his son Hormouz 590 Exploits of Bahram. His Rebellion. Hormouz is deposed and imprisoned. Elevation of his Son Chosroes. Death of Hormouz. Chosroes flies to the Romans. His Return, and final Victory. Death of Bahram 591-603. Restoration and Policy of Chosroes 570-600. Pride, Policy, and the Power of the Chagan of the Avars 595-602. Wars of Maurice against the Avars. State of the Roman Armies. Their Discontent. And Rebellion 602 Election of Phocas. Revolt of Constantinople. Death of Maurice and his Children 602-610. Phocas Emperor. His Character. And Tyranny 610 His Fall and Death 610-642. Reign of Heraclius 603 Chosroes invades the Roman Empire 611 His Conquest of Syria 614 Of Palestine 616 Of Egypt. Of Asia Minor. His Reign and Magnificence 610-622. Distress of Heraclius. He solicits Peace 621 His Preparations for War 622 First Expedition of Heraclius against the Persians 623, 624, 625. His second Expedition 626 Deliverance of Constantinople from the Persians and Avars. Alliances and Conquests of Heraclius 627 His third Expedition. And Victories. Flight of Chosroes 628 He is deposed. And murdered by his Son Siroes. Treaty of Peace between the two Empires Chapter XLVII Theological History of the Doctrine of the Incarnation.—The Human and Divine Nature of Christ.—Enmity of the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Constantinople.—St. Cyril and Nestorius.—Third General Council of Ephesus.—Heresy of Eutyches.—Fourth General Council of Chalcedon.—Civil and Ecclesiastical Discord.— Intolerance of Justinian.—The Three Chapters.—The Monothelite Controversy.—State of the Oriental Sects:—I. The Nestorians.—II. The Jacobites.—III. The Maronites.—IV. The Armenians.—V. The Copts.—VI. The Abyssinians A.D. The Incarnation of Christ I. A pure Man to the Ebonites. His Birth and Elevation II. A pure God to the Docetes. His incorruptible Body III. Double Nature of Cerinthus IV. Divine Incarnation of Apollinaris V. Orthodox Consent and verbal Disputes 412-444. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria 413, 414, 415. His Tyranny 428 Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople 429-431. His Heresy 431 First Council of Ephesus. Condemnation of Nestorius. Opposition of the Orientals 431-435. Victory of Cyril 435 Exile of Nestorius 448 Heresy of Eutyches 449 Second Council of Ephesus 451 Council of Chalcedon. Faith of Chalcedon 451-482. Discord of the East 482 The Henoticon of Zeno 508-518. The Trisagion, and religious War, till the Death of Anastasius 514 First religious War 519-565. Theological Character and Government of Justinian. His Persecution of Heretics. Of Pagans. Of Jews. Of Samaritans. His Orthodoxy 532-698. The three Chapters 553 Vth general Council: IId of Constantinople 564 Heresy of Justinian 629 The Monothelite Controversy 639 The Ecthesis of Heraclius 648 The Type of Constans 680, 681. VIth general Council: IIId of Constantinople. Union of the Greek and Latin Churches. Perpetual Separation of the Oriental Sects I. The Nestorians 500 Sole Masters of Persia. 500-1200 Their Missions in Tartary, India, China, &c. 883 The Christians of St. Thomas in India II. The Jacobites III. The Maronites IV. The Armenians V. The Copts or Egyptians 537-568. The Patriarch Theodosius 538 Paul 551 Apollinaris 580 Eulogius 609 John. Their Separation and Decay 625-661. Benjamin, the Jacobite Patriarch VI. The Abyssinians and Nubians 530 Church of Abyssinia 1525-1550 The Portuguese in Abyssinia 1557 Mission of the Jesuits 1626 Conversion of the Emperor 1632 Final Expulsion of the Jesuits