Guide to European Compressors and Their Applications: The Complete Reference Guide to Compressors Design, Operation and Applications

Guide to European Compressors and Their Applications: The Complete Reference Guide to Compressors Design, Operation and Applications

Hardback European Guide Series (Rep)

Edited by Peter Simmons, Edited by Brian Nesbitt, Edited by Dr David G. Searle

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  • Publisher: Professional Engineering Publishing
  • Format: Hardback | 272 pages
  • Dimensions: 210mm x 294mm x 24mm | 939g
  • Publication date: 30 May 2003
  • Publication City/Country: Bury St Edmunds
  • ISBN 10: 1860583369
  • ISBN 13: 9781860583360
  • Illustrations note: illustrations, index

Product description

This is the one stop complete technical manual and buyers guide for all those in the power, process, gas, petro chemical, nuclear and water industries. "European Compressors & Applications" has been designed and written for compressor users. It has been designed to provide practical information about the outline design, selection, and installation of compressors and how these affect performance. This book contains full principles, practice, types of equipment, suitability for application component details, maintenance, manufactures' information, guidelines for specification and fitting as well as a complete and comprehensive Buyers' Guide including contact details for all valve suppliers and manufacturers. It is ideal for any plant engineer, plant manager, maintenance manager, designer, specifiers, marketing and sales engineers and others who make buy, sell or fit this equipment. It provides uniquely comprehensive source of information. It is heavily illustrated, easy to use, and the one stop reference for industry. It is written by engineers for engineers.

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Author information

Peter retired from full time employment in 1990 and subsequently worked as a consultant for Shell UK Exploration and Production advising on compressors for the Nelson and Brent Oilfield refurbishments. He also worked on developing and updating the company's manuals for compressor systems and dry gas seal systems as well as lecturing on rotating machines at the company's training courses. He is retained as a consultant to EEMUA (The Engineering Equipment & Materials Users Association) and the Institute of Petroleum, representing these bodies on BSI committees associated with mechanical equipment for the petroleum and natural gas industries and to represent the United Kingdom on various ISO committees and working groups concerned with international standardisation for pumps, compressors and gears etcetera. Peter was convenor of ISO TC67/SC6/WG9, concerned with the development of international standards for couplings for rotating machines. He was also a member of the API Task Force revising the API Standard Paragraphs for standards relating to rotating machines. Previously Head of Mechanical Equipment, at Shell Exploration and Production, Peter was responsible for advising management, project teams and operations and for establishing company standards and policy on all matters relating to the specification, design, installation and operation of all mechanical equipment for Shell's North Sea oil and gas installations and the associated onshore terminals. Earlier experience was gained at ICI Petrochemical Division and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Division. Over the years Peter has published a number technical papers in industry journals and at IMechE conferences and seminars. Brian Nesbitt is a highly respected consultant specialising in pump, compressor and valve technologies. He is no stranger to the European Series of books for mechanical and electrical engineers; having previously edited two editions of European Pumps & Pumping and European Valves for Control, Isolation & Safety. Brian's working career began with turbo generators up to 500MW at shop floor level. It continued with periods in drawing and design offices involving work on rotodynamic and reciprocating compressors and gas turbines. He was involved with large rotodynamic compressors, both centrifugal and axial-flow; including gas circulators for nuclear reactors and work covered in particular the special design of ancillary systems. Machine installation and interconnection was also an important feature of this work. A period in industrial refrigeration working with reciprocating and screw compressors and system design and installation was followed by engineering and applications support for reciprocating pumps. Brian is the current chairman of the BSI MCE/6/6 and European CEN/TC 197/SC5 subcommittees and is the UK Principal Technical Expert to ISO/TC 67/SC6 Joint Working Group 2 for "Oil & Gas" reciprocating pumps. David Searle is no stranger to the European Series either; having written two editions of European Electric Motors, another of the titles in this series of books for electrical and mechanical engineers. David graduated in electrical engineering, specialising in electrical machines. He was awarded a Doctorate from the University of Bristol for the study of speed changing as applied to 3-phase a.c. motors. David was also involved in the development of new motors and the introduction of computer aided design techniques, culminating in the design and development of specialised motors at GEC Machines. Although he was in charge of electrical engineering for the period involved with special motors, some work involved mechanical engineering and, in particular, noise and thermal aspects of motor performance. In 1988 he became Chief Electrical Engineer at the former Mather & Platt company. In 1995 he took early retirement coincident with writing the first edition of European Electric Motors. The second edition of this was published in 2002.

Table of contents

1 Basic principles and compressor types 1; 1.1 Gas laws and gas properties 3; 1.1.1 Thermodynamic laws and basic gas laws 3; 1.1.2 Continuity, Bernoulli's equation, momentum and energy equation 4; 1.1.2.1 The continuity equation 4; 1.1.2.2 Bernoulli's equation 4; 1.1.2.3 The momentum equation 5; 1.1.2.4 The energy equation 6; 1.1.3 Pipe flow losses 7; 1.1.3.1 Reynolds Number 7; 1.1.3.2 Head losses in straight pipes 7; 1.1.3.3 Head losses in fittings 8; 1.1.3.4 Hydraulic diameter 8; 1.1.3.5 Total head losses in the pipe system 8; 1.1.4 Perfect and real gases 9; 1.1.5 Diagrams of gas properties 14; 1.1.6 Properties of mixtures 15; 1.1.6.1 Mean molar mass 17; 1.1.6.2 Effective value of the gas constant 17; 1.1.6.3 Mean molar specific heat 17; 1.1.6.4 Isentropic exponent of the mixture 17; 1.1.6.5 Compressibility of the gas mixture 17; 1.1.6.4 Mixture specific volume 18; 1.1.7 Mass / volume relationship 18; 1.1.8 Principles of compression 18; 1.1.9 Polytropic head 19; 1.1.10 Polytropic efficiency 20; 1.1.11 Power consumption 20; 1.2 Basic compressor types 20; 1.2.1 Types of compressors 20; 1.2.1.1 Rotodynamic compressors 20; 1.2.1.2 Positive displacement compressors 20; 1.2.2 Compressor terminology and abbreviations 21; 1.3 General aspects of rotodynamic compressors 31; 1.3.1 Jet compressors 31; 1.3.2 Rotodynamic compressors 32; 1.3.3 Surge and stonewall in rotodynamic compressors 35; 1.4 General aspects of positive displacement compressors 35; 1.4.1 Basic principles 35; 1.4.2 Ideal compression processes 36; 1.4.3 Real compression process 36; 1.4.4 Mechanical work input 36; 1.5 System characteristics and operating points 37; 1.6 Multi-staging and intercooling 38; 2 Centrifugal compressors - construction and design 39; 2.1 General 40; 2.2 Construction 40; 2.2.1 Impellers 40; 2.2.2 Diffusers 41; 2.2.3 Multi-staging 41; 2.2.4 Intercoolers 41; 2.2.5 Compressor casings 42; 2.2.6 Shaft and impeller arrangements 45; 2.2.6.1 "Overhung" design 45; 2.2.6.2 Straight-through design 45; 2.2.6.3 Integrally-geared compressor 46; 2.2.7 Multi-casing / driver configurations 48; 2.2.8 Materials 49; 2.3 Number of compression groups, number of stages per group and power consumption 51; 2.3.1 General 51; 2.3.2 Number of compression groups 51; 2.3.3 Number of impellers per group 55; 2.3.4 Power consumption 56; 2.4 Operating problems 57; 2.4.1 Speed limits 57; 2.4.2 Aerodynamic instability 57; 2.4.3 Rotating stall 58; 3 Axial-flow compressors - construction and design 59; 3.1 General 60; 3.2 Construction 62; 3.2.1 Rotors 62; 3.2.2 Stators 63; 3.2.3 Materials 63; 3.2.4 Variable geometry, multi-staging and blow-off valves 63; 3.3 Number of compression groups, number of stages per group and power consumption 63; 3.3.1 Number of compression groups 64; 3.3.2 Number of stages per group 64; 3.3.3 Power consumption 64; 3.4 Operating problems 64; 3.4.1 Blade vibration 65; 3.4.2 Surging 65; 3.4.3 Rotating stall 65; 4 Reciprocating compressors - construction and design 67; 4.1 General 68; 4.2 Construction 69; 4.2.1 Basic layouts 69; 4.2.2 Piston and piston rod sealing 74; 4.2.3 Valves 75; 4.2.4 Pulsation dampers 75; 4.2.5 Materials 76; 4.3 Number of compression stages, cylinders per stage and cylinder size 77; 4.3.1 Number of compression stages 77; 4.3.2 Compressor speed and piston speed and stroke relationships 81; 4.3.3 Number of cylinders and cylinder size 81; 5 Rotary positive displacement compressors - construction and design 85; 5.1 General 86; 5.2 Screw compressors 86; 5.2.1 Description and operating principle 86; 5.2.2 Performance and liquid injection 87; 5.3 Roots blowers 88; 5.4 Single-lobe compressors 89; 5.5 Sliding vane compressors 89; 5.6 Liquid ring compressors 90; 5.7 Scroll compressors 90; 6 Capacity regulation 93; 6.1 General 94; 6.2 Recycle by-pass control 94; 6.3 Discharge control 95; 6.4 "On/off" control 95; 6.5 Variable speed control 96; 6.6 Suction control 98; 6.7 Clearance pockets 99; 6.8 Step-wise control 99; 6.8.1 General 99; 6.8.2 Three step control 100; 6.8.3 Five step control 100; 6.8.4 Multi-cylinder compressors 100; 6.9 Variable geometry 100; 7 Protection systems 103; 7.1 General 104; 7.2 Liquid carry-over prevention 104; 7.3 Over-pressure protection 105; 7.4 Reverse flow protection 105; 7.5 Anti-surge protection 106; 7.6 Air dryers 107; 8 Compressor drivers 109; 8.1 General 110; 8.2 Electric motor drives 110; 8.2.1 Fixed-speed motors 110; 8.2.1.1 Torque-speed characteristics 110; 8.2.1.2 Direct-on-line starting 112; 8.2.1.3 Star-delta starting 112; 8.2.1.4 Autotransformer starting 113; 8.2.1.5 Soft starting 113; 8.2.1.6 PWM variable-speed starting 113; 8.2.2 Variable speed drives 114; 8.2.3 Current pulsations with reciprocating compressor electric motor drives 114; 8.2.3.1 General 114; 8.2.3.2 Torque and speed variations 115; 8.2.3.3 Torque and current pulsations 116; 8.2.3.4 Synchronous motors 117; 8.3 Steam turbines 118; 8.4 Gas turbines 118; 8.5 Turbo-expanders 121; 8.6 Internal combustion engines 123; 9 Bearings and seals 125; 9.1 Bearings 126; 9.1.1 General 126; 9.1.2 Bearing and shaft problems in rotodynamic compressors 126; 9.1.3 Bearing problems in reciprocating compressors 128; 9.1.4 Bearing lubrication and life 129; 9.1.4.1 Grease lubrication 129; 9.1.4.2 Oil lubrication 130; 9.1.4.3 Bearing life 131; 9.1.5 Special bearings 132; 9.2 Process seals 133; 9.2.1 General 133; 9.2.2 Conventional seals 133; 9.2.3 Dry gas seals 134; 9.2.3.1 Aerodynamic instability 137; 10 Testing 139; 10.1 Why test? 140; 10.2 Types of tests 140; 10.3 Conformity tests 140; 10.4 Integrity tests 140; 10.5 Operating tests 140; 10.6 Performance tests 141; 10.7 Recommended tests 142; 11 Installation 143; 11.1 General 144; 11.1.1 Process and maintenance considerations 144; 11.1.2 Noise and vibration 145; 11.1.2.1 The need for noise control 145; 11.1.2.2 Noise from compressors 145; 11.1.2.3 Noise from drivers and power transmission elements 145; 11.1.2.4 Vibration 146; 11.1.2.5 Reciprocating machines 147; 11.1.3 Compressors for potentially hazardous areas 147; 11.1.3.1 Area classification 147; 11.1.3.2 Contribution of compressors to area classification 147; 11.1.3.3 Equipment restrictions 147; 11.1.3.4 Legislation 148; 11.2 Installation configurations 148; 11.3 Mountings 149; 11.3.1 "Centre-line" mounting 149; 11.3.2 Baseplates and foundations 150; 11.4 Couplings 151; 11.5 Gearboxes 154; 11.5.1 General 154; 11.5.2 Parallel shaft gears 154; 11.5.3 Planetary type gears 155; 11.5.4 Gear standards 156; 11.6 Alignment 156; 11.7 Main plpe connections 156; 11.8 Liquid carry-over prevention systems 157; 11.9 Service air systems 158; 12 Inspection and maintenance 161; 12.1 Pre-delivery inspection 162; 12.1.1 Transportation and storage 162; 12.2 Maintenance 162; 12.2.1 General 162; 12.2.2 Scheduled maintenance 164; 12.2.3 Opportunistic maintenance 165; 12.2.4 Condition-based maintenance 165; 12.2.5 Breakdown maintenance 165; 12.2.6 Recommended maintenance strategies 165; 12.2.7 Centrifugal and axial-flow compressors 165; 12.2.8 Reciprocating compressors 165; 12.3 Condition monitoring 166; 12.3.1 General 166; 12.3.2 Rotodynamic compressors 167; 12.3.3 Reciprocating compressors 167; 12.3.4 Rotary type (valve-less) positive displacement compressors 168; 13 Compressor selection 169; 13.1 General procedure 170; 13.2 Compressor type selection 172; 13.3 Driver selection 176; 13.3.1 Centrifugal or axial-flow compressors 176; 13.3.2 Reciprocating compressors 176; 13.4 Useful reference specifications 177; 13.4.1 Quality standards 177; Why quality standards are needed? 177; The content of quality standards 178; 13.4.2 Available specifications 178; 13.4.3 Testing standards 179; 13.4.4 Safety standards 179; 13.4.5 Dimensional standards 179; 13.4.6 Material standards 179; 14 Typical compressor applications 181; 14.1 General 182; 14.2 "Oil & Gas" Processes 182; 14.2.1 Gas treating for removal of CO2, H2S, COS and mercaptans 182; 14.2.2 Recovery and purification of carbon monoxide for use as a chemical feedstock 182; 14.2.3 Recovery of elemental sulphur from sour gas 183; 14.2.4 Cryogenic gas fractionation used to recover C3 or C2 and higher components 184; 14.2.5 Carbon dioxide recovery and purification by cryogenics 184; 14.2.6 An improved Claus sulphur recovery unit 185; 14.3 Dairy products applications 185; 14.3.1 Chilled water 185; 14.4 Food processing applications 187; 15 Gas properties and other data 189; 15.1 Thermodynamic properties of gases 191; 15.1.1 General gas and vapour data 191; 15.1.2 Table of physical constants 193; 15.1.3 Notes and references to Table of physical constants 196; 15.2 Pressure/enthalpy charts 201; 15.2.1 Nitrogen 201; 15.2.2 Carbon dioxide 202; 15.2.3 Methane 203; 15.2.4 Ethane 204; 15.2.5 Ethylene 205; 15.2.6 Propane 206; 15.2.7 Propylene 207; 15.2.8 Iso-butane 208; 15.2.9 Normal-butane 209; 15.2.10 Iso-pentane 210; 15.2.11 Normal pentane 211; 15.2.12 Oxygen 212; 15.3 Units and conversions 213; 15.3.1 SI, The International System of Units 213; 15.3.2 Conversion factors for SI units 214; 15.3.2.1 Plane angle 214; 15.3.2.2 Length 214; 15.3.2.3 Area 214; 15.3.2.4 Volume 215; 15.3.2.5 Time 215; 15.3.2.6 Linear velocity 215; 15.3.2.7 Linear acceleration 215; 15.3.2.8 Angular velocity 215; 15.3.2.9 Angular acceleration 215; 15.3.2.10 Mass 215; 15.3.2.11 Density 216; 15.3.2.12 Force 216; 15.3.2.13 Torque 216; 15.3.2.14 Pressure, stress 216; 15.3.2.15 Dynamic viscosity 216; 15.3.2.16 Kinematic viscosity 216; 15.3.2.17 Energy 217; 15.3.2.18 Power 217; 15.3.2.19 Volume flow 217; 15.3.2.20 Temperature 218; 15.3.3 Other conversion factors 218; 15.3.3.1 Hardness 218; 15.3.3.2 Material toughness 219; 15.3.4 Normal quantities and units used within compressor technology 219; 16 Useful terms translated 221; 17 Classification guide to manufacturers and suppliers 233; 17.1 Introduction 234; 17.2 Names and addresses - manufacturers and suppliers 235; 17.3 Compressor types - manufacturers and suppliers 248; 17.4 Ancillary Products and services - manufacturers and suppliers 258; 17.5 Trade names - manufacturers and suppliers 261; 18 Reference Index 263; Index to Advertisers 272; Acknowledgements 272