Experiencing Power, Generating Authority: Cosmos, Politics, and the Ideology of Kingship in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia

Experiencing Power, Generating Authority: Cosmos, Politics, and the Ideology of Kingship in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia

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Edited by Jane A. Hill, Edited by Philip Jones, Edited by Antonio J. Morales

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For almost three thousand years, Egypt and Mesopotamia were each ruled by the single sacred office of kingship. Though geographically near, these ancient civilizations were culturally distinct, and scholars have historically contrasted their respective conceptualizations of the ultimate authority, imagining Egyptian kings as invested with cosmic power and Mesopotamian kings as primarily political leaders. In fact, both kingdoms depended on religious ideals and political resources to legitimate and exercise their authority. Cross-cultural comparison reveals the sophisticated and varied strategies that ancient kings used to unify and govern their growing kingdoms. Experiencing Power, Generating Authority draws on rich material records left behind by both kingdoms, from royal monuments and icons to the written deeds and commissions of kings. Thirteen essays provocatively juxtapose the relationships Egyptian and Mesopotamian kings had with their gods and religious mediators, as well as their subjects and court officials. They also explore the ideological significance of landscape in each kingdom, since the natural and built environment influenced the economy, security, and cosmology of these lands. The interplay of religion, politics, and territory is dramatized by the everyday details of economy, trade, and governance, as well as the social crises of war or the death of a king. Reexamining established notions of cosmic and political rule, Experiencing Power, Generating Authority challenges and deepens scholarly approaches to rulership in the ancient world. Contributors: Mehmet-Ali Atac, Miroslav Barta, Dominique Charpin, D. Bruce Dickson, Eckart Frahm, Alan B. Lloyd, Juan Carlos Moreno Garcia, Ludwig D. Morenz, Ellen Morris, Beate Pongratz-Leisten, Michael Roaf, Walther Sallaberger, JoAnn Scurlock.

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Author information

Jane A. Hill is Director of the Predynastic Egyptian Collections Project at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and a Consulting Scholar in the Museum's Egyptian Section. She also teaches anthropology at Rowan University. Philip Jones is Associate Curator in the Babylonian Section at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and Executive Editor of the Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary Project. Antonio J. Morales is Research Associate at the Institute of Egyptology of the Freie Universitat Berlin.

Table of contents

List of Figures List of Tables Acknowledgments List of Abbreviations Glossary Introduction. Comparing Kingship in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia: Cosmos, Politics, and Landscape -Jane A. Hill, Philip Jones, and Antonio J. Morales I. COSMOS Chapter 1. Propaganda and Performance at the Dawn of the State -Ellen Morris Chapter 2. "I am the Sun of Babylon": Solar aspects of royal power in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia -Dominque Charpin Chapter 3. Rising Suns and Falling Stars: Assyrian Kings and the Cosmos -Eckart Frahm Chapter 4. Texts before Writing: Reading (Proto-)Egyptian Poetics of Power -Ludwig D. Morenz Chapter 5. Images of Tammuz: The Intersection of Death, Divinity, and Royal Authority in Ancient Mesopotamia -JoAnn Scurlock II. POLITICS Chapter 6. Building the Pharaonic state: Territory, Elite and Power in Ancient Egypt in the Third millennium BCE -Juan Carlos Moreno Garcia Chapter 7. The Management of the Royal Treasure: Palace Archives and Palatial Economy in the Ancient Near East -Walther Sallaberger Chapter 8. Egyptian Kingship During the Old Kingdom -Miroslav Barta Chapter 9. All The King's Men: Authority, Kingship, and The Rise*of the Elites in Assyria -Beate Pongratz-Leisten Chapter 10. Kingship as Racketeering: The Royal Tombs and Death Pits at Ur, Mesopotamia, Reinterpreted from the Standpoint of Conflict Theory -D. Bruce Dickson III. LANDSCAPE Chapter 11. Mesopotamian Kings and the Built Environment -Michael Roaf Chapter 12. Expeditions to the Wadi Hammamat: Context and Concept -Alan B. Lloyd Chapter 13. "Imaginal" Landscapes in Assyrian Imperial Monuments -Mehmet-Ali Atac APPENDICES 1. Chronological Table for Egyptian and Mesopotamian Cultures 2. Map of Major Egyptian Sites 3. Map of Major Mesopotamian Sites Index List of Contributors