Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms

Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms

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By (author) Andrew S. Tanenbaum, By (author) Maarten van Steen

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  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Format: Paperback | 704 pages
  • Dimensions: 176mm x 234mm x 22mm | 890g
  • Publication date: 1 April 2008
  • ISBN 10: 0136135536
  • ISBN 13: 9780136135531
  • Edition: 2
  • Edition statement: 2nd International edition
  • Sales rank: 180,789

Product description

For courses on Distributed Systems, Distributed Operating Systems, and Advanced Operating Systems focusing on distributed systems, found in departments of Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Electrical Engineering. Very few textbooks today explore distributed systems in a manner appropriate for university students. In this unique text, esteemed authors Tanenbaum and van Steen provide full coverage of the field in a systematic way that can be readily used for teaching. No other text examines the underlying principles â and their applications to a wide variety of practical distributed systems â with this level of depth and clarity.

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Author information

Andrew S. Tanenbaum has a B.S. Degree from M.I.T. and a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. He is currently a Professor of Computer Science at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where he heads the Computer Systems Group. He is also Dean of the Advanced School for Computing and Imaging, an interuniversity graduate school doing research on advanced parallel, distributed, and imaging systems. Nevertheless, he is trying very hard to avoid turning into a bureaucrat.In the past, he has done research on compilers, operating systems, networking, and local-area distributed systems. His current research focuses primarily on the design of wide-area distributed systems that scale to a billion users. These research projects have led to five books and over 85 referred papers in journals and conference proceedings.Prof. Tanenbaum has also produced a considerable volume of software. He was the principal architect of the Amsterdam Compiler Kit, a widely-used toolkit for writing portable compilers, as well as of MINIX, a small UNIX clone intended for use in student programming labs. Together with his Ph.D. students and programmers, he helped design the Amoeba distributed operating system, a high-performance microkernel-based distributed operating system. The MINIX and Amoeba systems are now available for free via the Internet. Prof. Tanenbaum is a Fellow of the ACM, a Fellow of the IEEE, a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, winner of the 1994 ACM Karl V. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award, and winner of the 1997 ACM/SIGCSE Award for Outstanding Contributions to Computer Science Education. He is also listed in Whoâ s Who in the World.  Maarten van Steen  is a professor at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam where he teaches operating systems, computer networks, and distributed systems. He has also given various highly successful courses on computer systems related subjects to ICT professionals from industry and governmental organizations.  Prof. van Steen studied Applied Mathematics at Twente University and received a Ph.D. from Leiden University in Computer Science. After his graduate studies he went to work for an industrial research laboratory where he eventually became head of a group concentrating on programming support for parallel applications.  After five years of struggling to simultaneously do research and management, he decided to return to academia, first as an assistant professor in Computer Science at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, and later as an assistant professor in Andrew Tanenbaum's group at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.  His current research concentrates on large-scale distributed systems. Part of his research focusses on Web-based systems, in particular adaptive distribution and replication in (collaborative) content distribution networks. Another subject of extensive research is fully decentralized (gossip based) peer-to-peer systems for wired as well as wireless ad hoc networks. 

Table of contents

CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION1.1 DEFINITION OF A DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM 1.2 GOALS 1.2.1 Making Resources Accessible 1.2.2 Distribution Transparency 1.2.3 Openness 1.2.4 Scalability 1.2.5 Pitfalls1.3 TYPES OF DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1.3.1 Distributed Computing Systems 1.3.2 Distributed Information Systems 1.3.3 Distributed Pervasive Systems 1.4 SUMMARY  2 ARCHITECTURES 2.1 ARCHITECTURAL STYLES 2.2 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES 2.2.1 Centralized Architectures 2.2.2 Decentralized Architectures 2.2.3 Hybrid Architectures 2.3 ARCHITECTURES VERSUS MIDDLEWARE 2.3.1 Interceptors 2.3.2 General Approaches to Adaptive Software 2.3.3 Discussion 2.4 SELF-MANAGEMENT IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 2.4.1 The Feedback Control Model 2.4.2 Example: Systems Monitoring with Astrolabe 2.4.3 Example: Differentiating Replication Strategies in Globule 2.4.4 Example: Automatic Component Repair Management in Jade 2.5 SUMMARY  3 PROCESSES 3.1 THREADS 3.1.1 Introduction to Threads 3.1.2 Threads in Distributed Systems 3.2 VIRTUALIZATION 3.2.1 The Role of Virtualization in Distributed Systems 3.2.2 Architectures of Virtual Machines 3.3 CLIENTS 3.3.1 Networked User Interfaces 3.3.2 Client-Side Software for Distribution Transparency 3.4 SERVERS 3.4.1 General Design Issues 3.4.2 Server Clusters 3.4.3 Managing Server Clusters 3.5 CODE MIGRATION 3.5.1 Approaches to Code Migration 3.5.2 Migration and Local Resources 3.5.3 Migration in Heterogeneous Systems 3.6 SUMMARY  4 COMMUNICATION 4.1 FUNDAMENTALS 4.1.1 Layered Protocols 4.1.2 Types of Communication 4.2 REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL 4.2.1 Basic RPC Operation 4.2.2 Parameter Passing 4.2.3 Asynchronous RPC 4.2.4 Example: DCE RPC 4.3 MESSAGE-ORIENTED COMMUNICATION 4.3.1 Message-Oriented Transient Communication 4.3.2 Message-Oriented Persistent Communication 4.3.3 Example: IBMâ s WebSphere Message-Queuing System 4.4 STREAM-ORIENTED COMMUNICATION 4.4.1 Support for Continuous Media 4.4.2 Streams and Quality of Service 4.4.3 Stream Synchronization 4.5 MULTICAST COMMUNICATION 4.5.1 Application-Level Multicasting 4.5.2 Gossip-Based Data Dissemination 4.6 SUMMARY  5 NAMING 5.1 NAMES, IDENTIFIERS, AND ADDRESSES 5.2 FLAT NAMING 5.2.1 Simple Solutions 5.2.2 Home-Based Approaches 5.2.3 Distributed Hash Tables 5.2.4 Hierarchical Approaches 5.3 STRUCTURED NAMING 5.3.1 Name Spaces 5.3.2 Name Resolution 5.3.3 The Implementation of a Name Space 5.3.4 Example: The Domain Name System 5.4 ATTRIBUTE-BASED NAMING 5.4.1 Directory Services 5.4.2 Hierarchical Implementations: LDAP 5.4.3 Decentralized Implementations 5.5 SUMMARY 6 SYNCHRONIZATION 6.1 CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION 6.1.1 Physical Clocks 6.1.2 Global Positioning System 6.1.3 Clock Synchronization Algorithms 6.2 LOGICAL CLOCKS 6.2.1 Lamportâ s Logical Clocks 6.2.2 Vector Clocks 6.3 MUTUAL EXCLUSION 6.3.1 Overview 6.3.2 A Centralized Algorithm 6.3.3 A Decentralized Algorithm 6.3.4 A Distributed Algorithm 6.3.5 A Token Ring Algorithm 6.3.6 A Comparison of the Four Algorithms 6.4 GLOBAL POSITIONING OF NODES 6.5 ELECTION ALGORITHMS 6.5.1 Traditional Election Algorithms 6.5.2 Elections in Wireless Environments 6.5.3 Elections in Large-Scale Systems 6.6 SUMMARY  7 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1.1 Reasons for Replication 7.1.2 Replication as Scaling Technique 7.2 DATA-CENTRIC CONSISTENCY MODELS 7.2.1 Continuous Consistency 7.2.2 Consistent Ordering of Operations 7.3 CLIENT-CENTRIC CONSISTENCY MODELS 7.3.1 Eventual Consistency 7.3.2 Monotonic Reads 7.3.3 Monotonic Writes 7.3.4 Read Your Writes 7.3.5 Writes Follow Reads 7.4 REPLICA MANAGEMENT 7.4.1 Replica-Server Placement 7.4.2 Content Replication and Placement 7.4.3 Content Distribution7.5 CONSISTENCY PROTOCOLS 7.5.1 Continuous Consistency 7.5.2 Primary-Based Protocols 7.5.3 Replicated-Write Protocols 7.5.4 Cache-Coherence Protocols 7.5.5 Implementing Client-Centric Consistency 7.6 SUMMARY  8 FAULT TOLERANCE 8.1 INTRODUCTION TO FAULT TOLERANCE 8.1.1 Basic Concepts 8.1.2 Failure Models 8.1.3 Failure Masking by Redundancy 8.2 PROCESS RESILIENCE 8.2.1 Design Issues 8.2.2 Failure Masking and Replication 8.2.3 Agreement in Faulty Systems 8.2.4 Failure Detection 8.3 RELIABLE CLIENT-SERVER COMMUNICATION 8.3.1 Point-to-Point Communication 8.3.2 RPC Semantics in the Presence of Failures 8.4 RELIABLE GROUP COMMUNICATION 8.4.1 Basic Reliable-Multicasting Schemes 8.4.2 Scalability in Reliable Multicasting 8.4.3 Atomic Multicast 8.5 DISTRIBUTED COMMIT 8.5.1 Two-Phase Commit 8.5.2 Three-Phase Commit 8.6 RECOVERY 8.6.1 Introduction 8.6.2 Checkpointing 8.6.3 Message Logging 8.6.4 Recovery-Oriented Computing 8.7 SUMMARY  9 SECURITY9.1 INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY 9.1.1 Security Threats, Policies, and Mechanisms 9.1.2 Design Issues 9.1.3 Cryptography 9.2 SECURE CHANNELS 9.2.1 Authentication 9.2.2 Message Integrity and Confidentiality 9.2.3 Secure Group Communication 9.2.4 Example: Kerberos 9.3 ACCESS CONTROL 9.3.1 General Issues in Access Control 9.3.2 Firewalls 9.3.3 Secure Mobile Code 9.3.4 Denial of Service 9.4 SECURITY MANAGEMENT 9.4.1 Key Management 9.4.2 Secure Group Management 9.4.3 Authorization Management 9.5 SUMMARY  10 DISTRIBUTED OBJECT-BASED SYSTEMS 10.1 ARCHITECTURE 10.1.1 Distributed Objects10.1.2 Example: Enterprise Java Beans 10.1.3 Example: Globe Distributed Shared Objects 10.2 PROCESSES 10.2.1 Object Servers 10.2.2 Example: The Ice Runtime System 10.3 COMMUNICATION 10.3.1 Binding a Client to an Object 10.3.2 Static versus Dynamic Remote Method Invocations 10.3.3 Parameter Passing 10.3.4 Example: Java RMI 10.3.5 Object-Based Messaging 10.4 NAMING 10.4.1 CORBA Object References 10.4.2 Globe Object References 10.5 SYNCHRONIZATION 10.6 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 10.6.1 Entry Consistency 10.6.2 Replicated Invocations 10.7 FAULT TOLERANCE 10.7.1 Example: Fault-Tolerant CORBA 10.7.2 Example: Fault-Tolerant Java 10.8 SECURITY 10.8.1 Example: Globe 10.8.2 Security for Remote Objects 10.9 SUMMARY  11 DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS 11.1 ARCHITECTURE 11.1.1 Client-Server Architectures 11.1.2 Cluster-Based Distributed File Systems 11.1.3 Symmetric Architectures 11.2 PROCESSES 11.3 COMMUNICATION 11.3.1 RPCs in NFS 11.3.2 The RPC2 Subsystem 11.3.3 File-Oriented Communication in Plan 9 11.4 NAMING 11.4.1 Naming in NFS 11.4.2 Constructing a Global Name Space 11.5 SYNCHRONIZATION 11.5.1 Semantics of File Sharing 11.5.2 File Locking 11.5.3 Sharing Files in Coda 11.6 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 11.6.1 Client-Side Caching 11.6.2 Server-Side Replication 11.6.3 Replication in Peer-to-Peer File Systems 11.6.4 File Replication in Grid Systems 11.7 FAULT TOLERANCE 11.7.1 Handling Byzantine Failures 11.7.2 High Availability in Peer-to-Peer Systems 11.8 SECURITY 11.8.1 Security in NFS 11.8.2 Decentralized Authentication 11.8.3 Secure Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Systems 11.9 SUMMARY  12 DISTRIBUTED WEB-BASED SYSTEMS 12.1 ARCHITECTURE 12.1.1 Traditional Web-Based Systems 12.1.2 Web Services 12.2 PROCESSES 12.2.1 Clients 12.2.2 The Apache Web Server 12.2.3 Web Server Clusters 12.3 COMMUNICATION 12.3.1 Hypertext Transfer Protocol 12.3.2 Simple Object Access Protocol 12.4 NAMING 12.5 SYNCHRONIZATION 12.6 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 12.6.1 Web Proxy Caching 12.6.2 Replication for Web Hosting Systems 12.6.3 Replication of Web Applications 12.7 FAULT TOLERANCE 12.8 SECURITY 12.9 SUMMARY  13 DISTRIBUTED COORDINATION-BASED SYSTEMS13.1 INTRODUCTION TO COORDINATION MODELS 13.2 ARCHITECTURES 13.2.1 Overall Approach 13.2.2 Traditional Architectures 13.2.3 Peer-to-Peer Architectures 13.2.4 Mobility and Coordination 13.3 PROCESSES 13.4 COMMUNICATION 13.4.1 Content-Based Routing 13.4.2 Supporting Composite Subscriptions 13.5 NAMING 13.5.1 Describing Composite Events 13.5.2 Matching Events and Subscriptions 13.6 SYNCHRONIZATION 13.7 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 13.7.1 Static Approaches 13.7.2 Dynamic Replication 13.8 FAULT TOLERANCE 13.8.1 Reliable Publish-Subscribe Communication 13.8.2 Fault Tolerance in Shared Dataspaces 13.9 SECURITY 13.9.1 Confidentiality 13.9.2 Secure Shared Dataspaces 13.10 SUMMARY  14 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING AND BIBLIOGRAPHY14.1 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING 14.1.1 Introduction and General Works 14.1.2 Architectures 14.1.3 Processes 14.1.4 Communication 14.1.5 Naming 14.1.6 Synchronization 14.1.7 Consistency and Replication 14.1.8 Fault Tolerance 14.1.9 Security 14.1.10 Distributed Object-Based Systems 14.1.11 Distributed File Systems 14.1.12 Distributed Web-Based Systems 14.1.13 Distributed Coordination-Based Systems 14,2 ALPHABETICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX