Data Center Virtualization Fundamentals: Understanding Techniques and Designs for Highly Efficient Data Centers with Cisco Nexus, UCS, MDS, and BeyondPaperback Fundamentals
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- Publisher: Cisco Press
- Format: Paperback | 900 pages
- Dimensions: 183mm x 234mm x 56mm | 1,565g
- Publication date: 1 July 2013
- Publication City/Country: Indianapolis
- ISBN 10: 1587143240
- ISBN 13: 9781587143243
- Illustrations note: Illustrations (black and white)
- Sales rank: 171,852
Data Center Virtualization Fundamentals For many IT organizations, today's greatest challenge is to drive more value, efficiency, and utilization from data centers. Virtualization is the best way to meet this challenge. Data Center Virtualization Fundamentals brings together the comprehensive knowledge Cisco professionals need to apply virtualization throughout their data center environments. Leading data center expert Gustavo A. A. Santana thoroughly explores all components of an end-to-end data center virtualization solution, including networking, storage, servers, operating systems, application optimization, and security. Rather than focusing on a single product or technology, he explores product capabilities as interoperable design tools that can be combined and integrated with other solutions, including VMware vSphere. With the author's guidance, you'll learn how to define and implement highly-efficient architectures for new, expanded, or retrofit data center projects. By doing so, you can deliver agile application provisioning without purchasing unnecessary infrastructure, and establish a strong foundation for new cloud computing and IT-as-a-service initiatives. Throughout, Santana illuminates key theoretical concepts through realistic use cases, real-world designs, illustrative configuration examples, and verification outputs. Appendixes provide valuable reference information, including relevant Cisco data center products and CLI principles for IOS and NX-OS. With this approach, Data Center Virtualization Fundamentals will be an indispensable resource for anyone preparing for the CCNA Data Center, CCNP Data Center, or CCIE Data Center certification exams. Gustavo A. A. Santana, CCIE(R) No. 8806, is a Cisco Technical Solutions Architect working in enterprise and service provider data center projects that require deep integration across technology areas such as networking, application optimization, storage, and servers. He has more than 15 years of data center experience, and has led and coordinated a team of specialized Cisco engineers in Brazil. He holds two CCIE certifications (Routing & Switching and Storage Networking), and is a VMware Certified Professional (VCP) and SNIA Certified Storage Networking Expert (SCSN-E). A frequent speaker at Cisco and data center industry events, he blogs on data center virtualization at gustavoaasantana.net. * Learn how virtualization can transform and improve traditional data center network topologies * Understand the key characteristics and value of each data center virtualization technology * Walk through key decisions, and transform choices into architecture * Smoothly migrate existing data centers toward greater virtualization * Burst silos that have traditionally made data centers inefficient * Master foundational technologies such as VLANs, VRF, and virtual contexts * Use virtual PortChannel and FabricPath to overcome the limits of STP * Optimize cabling and network management with fabric extender (FEX) virtualized chassis * Extend Layer 2 domains to distant data center sites using MPLS and Overlay Transport Virtualization (OTV) * Use VSANs to overcome Fibre Channel fabric challenges * Improve SAN data protection, environment isolation, and scalability * Consolidate I/O through Data Center Bridging and FCoE * Use virtualization to radically simplify server environments * Create server profiles that streamline "bare metal" server provisioning * "Transcend the rack" through virtualized networking based on Nexus 1000V and VM-FEX * Leverage opportunities to deploy virtual network services more efficiently * Evolve data center virtualization toward full-fledged private clouds -Reviews - "The variety of material that Gustavo covers in this work would appeal to anyone responsible for Data Centers today. His grasp of virtualization technologies and ability to relate it in both technical and non-technical terms makes for compelling reading. This is not your ordinary tech manual. Through use of relatable visual cues, Gustavo provides information that is easily recalled on the subject of virtualization, reaching across Subject Matter Expertise domains. Whether you consider yourself well-versed or a novice on the topic, working in large or small environments, this work will provide a clear understanding of the diverse subject of virtualization." -- Bill Dufresne, CCIE 4375, Distinguished Systems Engineer, Cisco (Americas) "..this book is an essential reference and will be valuable asset for potential candi-dates pursuing their Cisco Data Center certifications. I am confident that in reading this book, individuals will inevitably gain extensive knowledge and hands-on experience dur-ing their certification preparations. If you're looking for a truly comprehensive guide to virtualization, this is the one!" -- Yusuf Bhaiji, Senior Manager, Expert Certifications (CCIE, CCDE, CCAr), Learning@Cisco "When one first looks at those classic Cisco Data Center blueprints, it is very common to become distracted with the overwhelming number of pieces and linkages. By creating a solid theoretical foundation and providing rich sets of companion examples to illustrate each concept, Gustavo's book brings hope back to IT Professionals from different areas of expertise. Apparently complex topics are demystified and the insertion of products, mechanisms, protocols and technologies in the overall Data Center Architecture is clearly explained, thus enabling you to achieve robust designs and successful deployments. A must read...Definitely!" -- Alexandre M. S. P. Moraes, Consulting Systems Engineer - Author of "Cisco Firewalls"
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Gustavo A. A. Santana, CCIE No. 8806, is a Cisco Technical Solutions Architect working in enterprise and service provider data center projects that require a greater integration among multiple technology areas such as networking, application optimization, storage, and servers. With more than 15 years of experience in the data center industry, Gustavo has led and coordinated a team of specialized Cisco engineers in Brazil. A true believer of education as a technology catalyst, he has also dedicated himself to the technical development of many IT professionals from customer, partner, and strategic alliance organizations. In addition to holding two CCIE certifications (Routing & Switching and Storage Networking), Gustavo is also a VMware Certified Professional (VCP) and an SNIA Certified Storage Networking Expert (SCSN-E). A frequent speaker at Cisco and data center industry events, he holds a degree in computer engineering from Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA-Brazil) and an MBA in strategic IT management from Fundac(c)o Getulio Vargas (FGV-Brazil). Gustavo maintains a personal blog in which he discusses topics related to data center virtualization technologies at http://gustavoaasantana.net.
"The variety of material that Gustavo covers in this work would appeal to anyone responsible for Data Centers today. His grasp of virtualization technologies and ability to relate it in both technical and non-technical terms makes for compelling reading. This is not your ordinary tech manual. Through use of relatable visual cues, Gustavo provides information that is easily recalled on the subject of virtualization, reaching across Subject Matter Expertise domains. Whether you consider yourself well-versed or a novice on the topic, working in large or small environments, this work will provide a clear understanding of the diverse subject of virtualization." -- Bill Dufresne, CCIE 4375, Distinguished Systems Engineer, Cisco (Americas) "..this book is an essential reference and will be valuable asset for potential candi-dates pursuing their Cisco Data Center certifications. I am confident that in reading this book, individuals will inevitably gain extensive knowledge and hands-on experience dur-ing their certification preparations. If you're looking for a truly comprehensive guide to virtualization, this is the one!" -- Yusuf Bhaiji, Senior Manager, Expert Certifications (CCIE, CCDE, CCAr), Learning@Cisco "When one first looks at those classic Cisco Data Center blueprints, it is very common to become distracted with the overwhelming number of pieces and linkages. By creating a solid theoretical foundation and providing rich sets of companion examples to illustrate each concept, Gustavo's book brings hope back to IT Professionals from different areas of expertise. Apparently complex topics are demystified and the insertion of products, mechanisms, protocols and technologies in the overall Data Center Architecture is clearly explained, thus enabling you to achieve robust designs and successful deployments. A must read... Definitely!" -- Alexandre M. S. P. Moraes, Consulting Systems Engineer - Author of "Cisco Firewalls"
Table of contents
Foreword xxiii Introduction xxv Part I What Is Virtualization? Chapter 1 Virtualization History and Definitions 1 Data Center Essential Definitions 2 Data Center Evolution 3 Operational Areas and Data Center Architecture 5 The Origins of Data Center Virtualization 8 Virtual Memory 8 Mainframe Virtualization 10 Hot Standby Router Protocol 11 Defining Virtualization 12 Data Center Virtualization Timeline 12 Classifying Virtualization Technologies 14 A Virtualization Taxonomy 15 Virtualization Scalability 17 Technology Areas 18 Classification Examples 21 Summary 22 Further Reading 22 Part II Virtualization in Network Technologies Chapter 2 Data Center Network Evolution 25 Ethernet Protocol: Then and Now 26 Ethernet Media 27 Coaxial Cable 27 Twisted-Pair 28 Optical Fiber 30 Direct-Attach Twinaxial Cables 32 Ethernet Data Rate Timeline 33 Data Center Network Topologies 34 Data Center Network Layers 35 Design Factors for Data Center Networks 36 Physical Network Layout Considerations 39 The ANSI/TIA-942 Standard 40 Network Virtualization Benefits 42 Network Logical Partitioning 42 Network Simplification and Traffic Load Balancing 43 Management Consolidation and Cabling Optimization 44 Network Extension 44 Summary 44 Further Reading 44 Chapter 3 The Humble Beginnings of Network Virtualization 45 Network Partitioning 47 Concepts from the Bridging World 47 Defining VLANs 49 VLAN Trunks 52 Two Common Misconceptions About VLANs 56 Misconception Number 1: A VLAN Must Be Associated to an IP Subnet 56 Misconception Number 2: Layer 3 VLANs 58 Spanning Tree Protocol and VLANs 61 Spanning Tree Protocol at Work 63 Port States 70 Spanning Tree Protocol Enhancements 72 Spanning Tree Instances 74 Private VLANs 78 VLAN Specifics 83 Native VLAN 84 Reserved VLANs IDs 84 Resource Sharing 85 Control and Management Plane 85 Concepts from the Routing World 87 Overlapping Addresses in a Data Center 87 Defining and Configuring VRFs 90 VRFs and Routing Protocols 92 VRFs and the Management Plane 98 VRF-Awareness 100 VRF Resource Allocation Control 101 Use Case: Data Center Network Segmentation 103 Summary 105 Further Reading 107 Chapter 4 An Army of One: ACE Virtual Contexts 109 Application Networking Services 111 The Use of Load Balancers 111 Load-Balancing Concepts 115 Layer 4 Switching Versus Layer 7 Switching 120 Connection Management 122 Address Translation and Load Balancing 124 Server NAT 124 Dual NAT 125 Port Redirection 126 Transparent Mode 126 Other Load-Balancing Applications 127 Firewall Load Balancing 127 Reverse Proxy Load Balancing 128 Offloading Servers 130 SSL Offload 130 TCP Offload 133 HTTP Compression 134 Load Balancer Proliferation in the Data Center 135 Load Balancer Performance 135 Security Policies 136 Suboptimal Traffic 137 Application Environment Independency 138 ACE Virtual Contexts 139 Application Control Engine Physical Connections 141 Connecting an ACE Appliance 141 Connecting an ACE Module 144 Creating and Allocating Resources to Virtual Contexts 145 Integrating ACE Virtual Contexts to the Data Center Network 156 Routed Design 156 Bridged Design 158 One-Armed Design 160 Managing and Configuring ACE Virtual Contexts 162 Allowing Management Traffic to a Virtual Context 162 Allowing Load Balancing Traffic Through a Virtual Context 163 Controlling Management Access to Virtual Contexts 171 ACE Virtual Context Additional Characteristics 176 Sharing VLANs Among Contexts 177 Virtual Context Fault Tolerance 177 Use Case: Multitenant Data Center 179 Summary 181 Further Reading 182 Chapter 5 Instant Switches: Virtual Device Contexts 183 Extending Device Virtualization 184 Why Use VDCs? 187 VDCs in Detail 188 Creating and Configuring VDCs 190 VDC Names and CLI Prompts 198 Virtualization Nesting 199 Allocating Resources to VDCs 202 Using Resource Templates 211 Managing VDCs 214 VDC Operations 214 Processes Failures and VDCs 216 VDC Out-of-Band Management 217 Role-Based Access Control and VDCs 222 Global Resources 225 Use Case: Data Center Security Zones 225 Summary 227 Further Reading 229 Chapter 6 Fooling Spanning Tree 231 Spanning Tree Protocol and Link Utilization 232 Link Aggregation 234 Server Connectivity and NIC Teaming 238 Cross-Switch PortChannels 240 Virtual PortChannels 241 Virtual PortChannel Definitions 242 Configuring Virtual PortChannels 247 Step 1: Defining the Domain 248 Step 2: Establishing Peer Keepalive Connectivity 248 Step 3: Creating the Peer Link 250 Step 4: Creating the Virtual PortChannel 252 Spanning Tree Protocol and Virtual PortChannels 254 Peer Link Failure and Orphan Ports 258 First-Hop Routing Protocols and Virtual PortChannels 259 Layer 2 Multipathing and vPC+ 265 FabricPath Data Plane 266 FabricPath Control Plane 269 FabricPath and Spanning Tree Protocol 272 Virtual PortChannel Plus 276 Use Case: Evolution of Network PODs 281 Summary 285 Further Reading 286 Chapter 7 Virtualized Chassis with Fabric Extenders 287 Server Access Models 288 Understanding Fabric Extenders 291 Fabric Extender Options 295 Connecting a Fabric Extender to a Parent Switch 296 Fabric Extended Interfaces and Spanning Tree Protocol 299 Fabric Interfaces Redundancy 301 Fabric Extender Topologies 305 Straight-Through Topologies 305 Dual-Homed Topologies 309 Use Case: Mixed Access Data Center 315 Summary 317 Further Reading 318 Chapter 8 A Tale of Two Data Centers 319 A Brief History of Distributed Data Centers 321 The Cold Age (Mid-1970s to 1980s) 321 The Hot Age (1990s to Mid-2000s) 322 The Active-Active Age (Mid-2000s to Today) 324 The Case for Layer 2 Extensions 324 Challenges of Layer 2 Extensions 325 Ethernet Extensions over Optical Connections 327 Virtual PortChannels 328 FabricPath 330 Ethernet Extensions over MPLS 332 MPLS Basic Concepts 333 Ethernet over MPLS 338 Virtual Private LAN Service 342 Ethernet Extensions over IP 352 MPLS over GRE 352 Overlay Transport Virtualization 354 OTV Terminology 357 OTV Basic Configuration 359 OTV Loop Avoidance and Multihoming 365 Migration to OTV 366 OTV Site Designs 373 VLAN Identifiers and Layer 2 Extensions 377 Internal Routing in Connected Data Centers 380 Use Case: Active-Active Greenfield Data Centers 382 Summary 384 Further Reading 386 Part III Virtualization in Storage Technologies Chapter 9 Storage Evolution 387 Data Center Storage Devices 387 Hard Disk Drives 388 Disk Arrays 389 Tape Drives and Libraries 390 Accessing Data in Rest 391 Block-Based Access 392 Small Computer Systems Interface 392 Mainframe Storage Access 396 Advanced Technology Attachment 397 File Access 397 Network File System 398 Common Internet File System 398 Record Access 398 Storage Virtualization 399 Virtualizing Storage Devices 402 Virtualizing LUNs 404 Virtualizing File Systems 406 Virtualizing SANs 407 Summary 408 Further Reading 408 Chapter 10 Islands in the SAN 409 Some Fibre Channel Definitions 410 Fibre Channel Layers 411 Fibre Channel Topologies and Port Types 412 Fibre Channel Addressing 413 Frames, Sequences, and Exchanges 415 Flow Control 417 Classes of Service 420 Fabric Processes 420 Fabric Initialization 422 Fabric Shortest Path First 424 Register State Change Notification 426 Fibre Channel Logins 427 Zoning 429 Defining and Exploring VSANs 430 SAN Islands 430 VSAN Creation 432 VSAN Trunking 434 Zoning and VSANs 439 FSPF and VSANs 442 VSAN Scoping 445 Use Case: SAN Consolidation 447 Summary 450 Further Reading 451 Chapter 11 Secret Identities 453 Fibre Channel over IP 454 FCIP High Availability 460 Use Case: SAN Extension with Traffic Engineering 462 Inter-VSAN Routing 464 IVR Infrastructure 465 IVR Zoning 467 Use Case: Transit VSAN 472 N_Port Virtualization 473 Configuring N_Port Virtualization 476 NPV Traffic Management 482 Deploying Port WWN Virtualization on NPV 486 Use Case: Blade Server Hosting Data Center 488 Summary 490 Further Reading 491 Chapter 12 One Cable to Unite Us All 493 The Case for Data Center Networking Convergence 495 Data Center Bridging 497 Priority-Based Flow Control 498 Enhanced Transmission Selection 500 Data Center Bridging eXchange Protocol 501 Congestion Notification 503 Introducing Fibre Channel over Ethernet 504 FCoE Elements 505 FCoE Initialization Protocol 507 Deploying Unified Server Access 509 Configuring Unified Server Access on Single-Context Switches 510 Configuring Unified Server Access with Storage VDCs 519 Configuring Multihop FCoE 523 Configuring Virtual Fibre Channel PortChannels 528 FCoE N_Port Virtualization 532 Unified Fabric Designs 535 Server Access Layer Unified Designs 536 FCoE and Virtual PortChannels 538 FCoE and Blade Servers 540 Beyond the Access Layer 542 Converged Access Model 542 Converged Aggregation Model 543 FCoE and SAN Extension 545 Use Case: LAN and SAN Management Separation 546 Summary 556 Further Reading 557 Part IV Virtualization in Server Technologies Chapter 13 Server Evolution 559 Server Architectures 560 Mainframes 560 RISC Servers 561 x86 Servers 562 x86 Hardware Evolution 562 CPU Evolution 564 Memory Evolution 566 Expansion Bus Evolution 569 Physical Format Evolution 571 Introducing x86 Server Virtualization 572 Virtualization Unleashed 574 Unified Computing 578 Summary 580 Further Reading 580 Chapter 14 Changing Personalities 581 Server Provisioning Challenges 583 Server Domain Operations 584 Infrastructure Domain Operations 585 Unified Computing and Service Profiles 586 Building Service Profiles 588 Identifying a Service Profile 594 Storage Definitions 595 Network Definitions 599 Virtual Interface Placement 602 Server Boot Order 604 Maintenance Policy 606 Server Assignment 606 Operational Policies 608 Configuration 608 External IPMI Management Configuration 609 Management IP Address 610 Additional Policies 611 Associating a Service Profile to a Server 612 Installing an Operating System 620 Verifying Stateless Computing 625 Using Policies 626 BIOS Setting Policies 627 Firmware Policies 633 Industrializing Server Provisioning 637 Cloning 638 Pools 639 Service Profile Templates 640 Server Pools 649 Use Case: Seasonal Workloads 653 Summary 655 Further Reading 656 Chapter 15 Transcending the Rack 657 Introduction to Virtual Networking 658 Virtual Switch Challenges 660 Cisco Nexus 1000V Architecture 661 Nexus 1000V Communication Modes 663 Port Profiles and Dynamic Interface Provisioning 664 Deploying Nexus 1000V 666 External Connectivity and Link Aggregation 684 NX-OS Features in the Virtual World 688 MAC Address Table 691 Access Lists 692 Online Migrations and Nexus 1000V 693 Virtual Extensible Local Area Networks 697 Introducing Virtual Machine Fabric Extender 705 Deploying VM-FEX 707 Enabling Dynamic vNICs on a UCS Service Profile 707 Preparing VMware vSphere Host to Deploy VM-FEX 709 Using the UCS Manager VMware Integration Wizard 711 Migrating Virtual Machines to VM-FEX 716 Online Migrations and VM-FEX 720 VM-FEX High-Performance Mode 723 Use Case: Data Center Merging 731 Summary 733 Further Reading 734 Chapter 16 Moving Targets 735 Virtual Network Services Definitions 736 Virtual Network Services Data Path 738 vPath-Enabled Virtual Network Services 740 Cisco Virtual Security Gateway: Compute Virtual Firewall 742 Installing Virtual Security Gateway 743 Creating Security Policies 745 Sending Data Traffic to VSG 747 Virtual Machine Attributes and Virtual Zones 751 Cisco ASA 1000V: Edge Virtual Firewall 754 Installing ASA 1000V 755 Sending Data Traffic to ASA 1000V 758 Configuring Security Policies on ASA 1000V 761 Application Acceleration 763 WAN Acceleration and Online Migration 769 Routing in the Virtual World 771 Site Selection and Server Virtualization 775 Route Health Injection 775 Global Server Load Balancing 777 Location/ID Separation Protocol 779 Use Case: Virtual Data Center 781 Summary 783 Further Reading 784 Part V End-to-End Virtualization Chapter 17 The Virtual Data Center and Cloud Computing 785 The Virtual Data Center 786 Automation and Standardization 789 What Is Cloud Computing? 793 Cloud Implementation Example 797 Journey to the Cloud 799 Networking in the Clouds 800 Software-Defined Networks 800 OpenStack 801 Network Overlays 802 Cisco Open Network Environment 804 Before We Go... 805 Summary 806 Further Reading 807 Part VI: Appendixes Appendix A Cisco Data Center Portfolio 809 Cisco Application Control Engine 809 Cisco Adaptive Security Appliances 5585-X 811 Cisco ASA 1000V Cloud Firewall 812 Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches 813 Cisco Cloud Portal 816 Cisco Intelligent Automation Solutions 817 Automation Software Components 817 Cisco Intelligent Automation for Cloud Solution 819 Cisco Intelligent Automation for SAP 820 Cisco MDS 9000 Series Multilayer Switches 820 Cisco Prime Network Analysis Module 823 Cisco Nexus Data Center Switches 823 Cisco Nexus 1000V Series Switches 824 Nexus 1010 and 1100 Virtual Services Appliances 824 Cisco Nexus 2000 Series Fabric Extenders 825 Cisco Nexus 3000 Series Switches 827 Cisco Nexus 4000 Series Switches 828 Cisco Nexus 5000 and 5500 Series Switches 829 Cisco Nexus 6000 Series Switches 831 Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches 832 Cisco Unified Computing System 835 Cisco 6100 and 6200 Series Fabric Interconnects 836 Cisco UCS 5100 Series Blade Server Chassis 836 Cisco UCS 2100 and 2200 Series Fabric Extenders 837 Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers 837 Cisco UCS C-Series Rack Servers 838 Cisco UCS Virtual Interface Cards 839 Unified Management Solutions 840 Cisco Application Network Manager 840 Cisco Prime Data Center Network Manager 841 Cisco UCS Manager and UCS Central 842 Virtual Network Management Center 843 Virtual Security Gateway 843 Virtualization Techniques Mapping 844 Further Reading 844 Appendix B IOS, NX-OS, and Application Control Software Command-Line Interface Basics 847 IOS Command-Line Interface Basics 847 Command Modes 848 Getting Context-Sensitive Help 850 Abbreviating Commands and Using Shortcuts 854 Managing Configuration Files 855 Using Debug Commands 858 NX-OS Command-Line Interface 859 NX-OS Access 860 NX-OS Modularity 861 NX-OS and Running Configuration Files 863 NX-OS Command-Line Interface Optimizations 866 Configuration Version Management, Batches, and Scripts 866 Application Control Software Command-Line Interface 870 Index 873