Coronary Artery Diseases: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging Approaches

Coronary Artery Diseases: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging Approaches

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By (author) M. Amiel, By (author) Attilio Maseri, By (author) H. Petitier, By (author) N. Vasile, Contributions by W. Benicelli, Contributions by P. Brun, Contributions by P.A. Crean, Contributions by D. Crotchet, Contributions by G.J. Davis, Contributions by P. Gaspard

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  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • Format: Paperback | 236 pages
  • Dimensions: 168mm x 244mm x 15mm | 408g
  • Publication date: 7 December 2011
  • Publication City/Country: Berlin
  • ISBN 10: 3642696066
  • ISBN 13: 9783642696060
  • Edition statement: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984
  • Illustrations note: 15 black & white tables, biography

Product description

2 Diagnostic Use of Radiographic Methods in Coronary Disease...56 3 Material...58 4 Mode of Operation ...62 5 Radiological Projections...63 6 Monitoring of Cardiac Parameters ...64 7 Pharmacological Tests ...66 7. 1 Coronary Arteries ...66 7. 2 Left Ventricle...67 8 Accidents and Risks of Coronary Arteriography ...67 References ...68 III Angiographic Explorations: Normal Results ...71 1 Left Ventricle and Left Ventricular Function 71 1. 1 Radiological Anatomy...71 1. 2 Normal Kinetics...77 1. 3 Analysis of Wall Contraction ...78 1. 4 Volumes and Function Indexes...81 2 Coronary Arteries and Veins ...84 2. 1 Origin, Calibre and Preponderance of the Coronary Arteries ...84 2. 2 Nomenclature and Segmentation of the Coronary Arteries ...87 2. 3 A Reminder About the Physiology of Coronary Circulation ...93 2. 4 Angiographic Anatomy ...94 2. 4. 1 Left Coronary Artery ...94 2. 4. 2 Right Coronary Artery...95 2. 4. 3 Vascularization of Nodes and the Conduction System . . 96 2. 4. 4 Interconnecting Anastomoses ...97 2. 5 Coronary Veins ...97 References ...98 IV Angiographic Explorations: Congenital Anomalies of the Coronary Arteries...1 00 1 Anomalies of the Origin, Course and Distribution of Coronary Arteries Arising from the Aorta ...100 2 Abnormal Origin of a Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery ...101 3 Anomalies in the Diameter of Coronary Arteries ...104 4 Coronary Fistulae ...109 References ...113 VII V Angiographic Explorations: Coronary Atheroma...114 1 Left Ventricle ...114 1. 1 Morphological Anomalies: Bulging and Lacuna-Like Aspects ...

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Table of contents

I Nuclear Medicine Investigations.- I Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Diagnostic Use of Radioisotopes in Coronary Disease.- 1 Detection of Transient Myocardial Ischaemia.- 2 Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction and of Scar Tissue.- 3 Perspectives.- II Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Short-Lived Radio-Nuclides: Present and Future Applications to the Study of Perfusion and Metabolism in the Heart.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Detection of Radio Tracers in the Heart.- 3 Tracers and Their Clinical Applications.- 3.1 Detection of Myocardial Ischaemia.- 3.2 Regional Myocardial Perfusion.- 3.3 Regional Myocardial Metabolism.- 4 Conclusion.- III Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Thallium-201 for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Technique.- 3 Diagnostic Use.- 3.1 Angina at Rest.- 3.2 Effort Angina.- 3.3 Myocardial Infarction.- 3.3.1 Acute Infarction.- 3.3.2 Old Infarction.- 4 Conclusion.- IV Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Pyrophosphate Myocardial Imaging.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Pathophysiological Mechanisms.- 3 Clinical Use.- 3.1 Scanning Technique.- 3.2 Technical Considerations.- 3.3 Interpretation.- 4 The Role of Technetium-99m Pyrophosphate Scintigraphy.- 4.1 Late Diagnosis.- 4.2 Myocardial Contusion.- 4.3 Unstable Angina.- 4.4 Right Ventricular Infarction.- 4.5 Perioperative Infarction.- 5 Future Development.- V Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Ventricular Function Studies.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Electrocardiogram-Gated Blood Pool Imaging.- 2.1 Blood Pool Labelling.- 2.2 Data Acquisition.- 2.3 Creation of Images from List Mode Data.- 2.4 Clinical Application.- 3 Continuous Precordial Counting.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- II X-Ray and Ultrasound Investigations.- I Conventional Radiology.- 1 Methods.- 1.1 Choice of Techniques.- 1.2 Contribution of Conventional Radiographic Projections.- 1.3 Contribution of Television Fluoroscopy.- 2 Results.- 2.1 Deformations of the Cardiac Silhouette.- 2.2 Pulmonary Vascularization Abnormalities.- 2.3 Analysis of Left Ventricular Kinetics.- 2.4 Searching for Coronary Arterial Calcifications.- References.- II Angiographic Explorations: Techniques.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Diagnostic Use of Radiographic Methods in Coronary Disease.- 3 Material.- 4 Mode of Operation.- 5 Radiological Projections.- 6 Monitoring of Cardiac Parameters.- 7 Pharmacological Tests.- 7.1 Coronary Arteries.- 7.2 Left Ventricle.- 8 Accidents and Risks of Coronary Arteriography.- References.- III Angiographic Explorations: Normal Results.- 1 Left Ventricle and Left Ventricular Function.- 1.1 Radiological Anatomy.- 1.2 Normal Kinetics.- 1.3 Analysis of Wall Contraction.- 1.4 Volumes and Function Indexes.- 2 Coronary Arteries and Veins.- 2.1 Origin, Calibre and Preponderance of the Coronary Arteries.- 2.2 Nomenclature and Segmentation of the Coronary Arteries.- 2.3 A Reminder About the Physiology of Coronary Circulation.- 2.4 Angiographic Anatomy.- 2.4.1 Left Coronary Artery.- 2.4.2 Right Coronary Artery.- 2.4.3 Vascularization of Nodes and the Conduction System.- 2.4.4 Interconnecting Anastomoses.- 2.5 Coronary Veins.- References.- IV Angiographic Explorations: Congenital Anomalies of the Coronary Arteries.- 1 Anomalies of the Origin, Course and Distribution of Coronary Arteries Arising from the Aorta.- 2 Abnormal Origin of a Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery.- 3 Anomalies in the Diameter of Coronary Arteries.- 4 Coronary Fistulae.- References.- V Angiographic Explorations: Coronary Atheroma.- 1 Left Ventricle.- 1.1 Morphological Anomalies: Bulging and Lacuna-Like Aspects.- 1.2 Anomalies of Contraction and Relaxation.- 1.3 Alterations in Function.- 1.4 Physiological and Pharmacological Tests.- 2 Right Ventricle.- 3 Coronary Arteries.- 3.1 Different Types of Stenosis; Post-stenotic Dilatation.- 3.2 Severity of Stenosis.- 3.3 Number and Site of Stenoses.- 3.4 Intercoronary Anastomoses and Coronary Collateral Circulation.- 3.5 Dolichomega-Arteries and Atheromatous Aneurysms.- 3.6 Recanalization.- 4 Coronary Artery Spasm.- References.- VI Angiographic Explorations: Critical Appraisal of Coronary Arteriography.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Reliability of the Examination.- 2.1 Operational Reliability.- 2.2 Reliability of the Method and Correlations Between Anatomical and Angiographic Findings.- 2.3 Reliability of Interpretation.- 3 Significance of Lesions.- 3.1 The Concept of Significant Stenosis.- 3.2 The Concept of a Global Lesional Score.- 4 Pitfalls in Interpretation.- 5 Methodology of Coronary Arteriographic Analysis.- References.- VII Angiographic Explorations: Natural History of Coronary Atheroma and Clinico-Angiographic Correlations.- 1 Beginning and Progression of the Disease.- 1.1 Coronary Arteries.- 1.2 Left Ventricle.- 2 Arteriographic Findings Related to Clinical Status.- 2.1 Chronic Angina.- 2.2 Unstable Angina.- 2.3 Variant Angina.- 2.4 Myocardial Infarction.- 2.4.1 Angiographic Findings.- 2.4.2 Mechanical Complications.- 2.5 Angina and Myocardial Infarction with "Healthy"I Nuclear Medicine Investigations.- I Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Diagnostic Use of Radioisotopes in Coronary Disease.- 1 Detection of Transient Myocardial Ischaemia.- 2 Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction and of Scar Tissue.- 3 Perspectives.- II Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Short-Lived Radio-Nuclides: Present and Future Applications to the Study of Perfusion and Metabolism in the Heart.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Detection of Radio Tracers in the Heart.- 3 Tracers and Their Clinical Applications.- 3.1 Detection of Myocardial Ischaemia.- 3.2 Regional Myocardial Perfusion.- 3.3 Regional Myocardial Metabolism.- 4 Conclusion.- III Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Thallium-201 for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Technique.- 3 Diagnostic Use.- 3.1 Angina at Rest.- 3.2 Effort Angina.- 3.3 Myocardial Infarction.- 3.3.1 Acute Infarction.- 3.3.2 Old Infarction.- 4 Conclusion.- IV Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Pyrophosphate Myocardial Imaging.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Pathophysiological Mechanisms.- 3 Clinical Use.- 3.1 Scanning Technique.- 3.2 Technical Considerations.- 3.3 Interpretation.- 4 The Role of Technetium-99m Pyrophosphate Scintigraphy.- 4.1 Late Diagnosis.- 4.2 Myocardial Contusion.- 4.3 Unstable Angina.- 4.4 Right Ventricular Infarction.- 4.5 Perioperative Infarction.- 5 Future Development.- V Radio-Nuclide Explorations: Ventricular Function Studies.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Electrocardiogram-Gated Blood Pool Imaging.- 2.1 Blood Pool Labelling.- 2.2 Data Acquisition.- 2.3 Creation of Images from List Mode Data.- 2.4 Clinical Application.- 3 Continuous Precordial Counting.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- II X-Ray and Ultrasound Investigations.- I Conventional Radiology.- 1 Methods.- 1.1 Choice of Techniques.- 1.2 Contribution of Conventional Radiographic Projections.- 1.3 Contribution of Television Fluoroscopy.- 2 Results.- 2.1 Deformations of the Cardiac Silhouette.- 2.2 Pulmonary Vascularization Abnormalities.- 2.3 Analysis of Left Ventricular Kinetics.- 2.4 Searching for Coronary Arterial Calcifications.- References.- II Angiographic Explorations: Techniques.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Diagnostic Use of Radiographic Methods in Coronary Disease.- 3 Material.- 4 Mode of Operation.- 5 Radiological Projections.- 6 Monitoring of Cardiac Parameters.- 7 Pharmacological Tests.- 7.1 Coronary Arteries.- 7.2 Left Ventricle.- 8 Accidents and Risks of Coronary Arteriography.- References.- III Angiographic Explorations: Normal Results.- 1 Left Ventricle and Left Ventricular Function.- 1.1 Radiological Anatomy.- 1.2 Normal Kinetics.- 1.3 Analysis of Wall Contraction.- 1.4 Volumes and Function Indexes.- 2 Coronary Arteries and Veins.- 2.1 Origin, Calibre and Preponderance of the Coronary Arteries.- 2.2 Nomenclature and Segmentation of the Coronary Arteries.- 2.3 A Reminder About the Physiology of Coronary Circulation.- 2.4 Angiographic Anatomy.- 2.4.1 Left Coronary Artery.- 2.4.2 Right Coronary Artery.- 2.4.3 Vascularization of Nodes and the Conduction System.- 2.4.4 Interconnecting Anastomoses.- 2.5 Coronary Veins.- References.- IV Angiographic Explorations: Congenital Anomalies of the Coronary Arteries.- 1 Anomalies of the Origin, Course and Distribution of Coronary Arteries Arising from the Aorta.- 2 Abnormal Origin of a Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery.- 3 Anomalies in the Diameter of Coronary Arteries.- 4 Coronary Fistulae.- References.- V Angiographic Explorations: Coronary Atheroma.- 1 Left Ventricle.- 1.1 Morphological Anomalies: Bulging and Lacuna-Like Aspects.- 1.2 Anomalies of Contraction and Relaxation.- 1.3 Alterations in Function.- 1.4 Physiological and Pharmacological Tests.- 2 Right Ventricle.- 3 Coronary Arteries.- 3.1 Different Types of Stenosis; Post-stenotic Dilatation.- 3.2 Severity of Stenosis.- 3.3 Number and Site of Stenoses.- 3.4 Intercoronary Anastomoses and Coronary Collateral Circulation.- 3.5 Dolichomega-Arteries and Atheromatous Aneurysms.- 3.6 Recanalization.- 4 Coronary Artery Spasm.- References.- VI Angiographic Explorations: Critical Appraisal of Coronary Arteriography.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Reliability of the Examination.- 2.1 Operational Reliability.- 2.2 Reliability of the Method and Correlations Between Anatomical and Angiographic Findings.- 2.3 Reliability of Interpretation.- 3 Significance of Lesions.- 3.1 The Concept of Significant Stenosis.- 3.2 The Concept of a Global Lesional Score.- 4 Pitfalls in Interpretation.- 5 Methodology of Coronary Arteriographic Analysis.- References.- VII Angiographic Explorations: Natural History of Coronary Atheroma and Clinico-Angiographic Correlations.- 1 Beginning and Progression of the Disease.- 1.1 Coronary Arteries.- 1.2 Left Ventricle.- 2 Arteriographic Findings Related to Clinical Status.- 2.1 Chronic Angina.- 2.2 Unstable Angina.- 2.3 Variant Angina.- 2.4 Myocardial Infarction.- 2.4.1 Angiographic Findings.- 2.4.2 Mechanical Complications.- 2.5 Angina and Myocardial Infarction with "Healthy" Coronary Arteries.- 2.5.1 Angina with Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries.- 2.5.2 Infarction with Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries.- 3 Predictive Value of Coronary and Ventricular Lesions.- References.- VIII Angiographic Explorations: Surgical Problems.- 1 The Role of Coronary Arteriography in the Decision to Operate.- 1.1 Coronary Arteriography and Bypass Surgery.- 1.2 Coronary Arteriography, Left Ventriculography and Other Surgical Problems.- 2 Postoperative Evaluation of the Coronary Patient.- 2.1 Bypasses and Implants.- 2.1.1 Angiographic Evaluation.- 2.1.2 X-Ray Computed Tomography.- 2.2 Left Ventricular Function.- 2.3 Coronary Arterial Network.- References.- IX Angiographic Explorations: Coronary Arterial Involvement in Various Diseases.- 1 Acquired Valvular Diseases.- 2 Mitral Valve Prolapse.- 3 Myocardial Bridges.- 4 Coronary Arterial Embolism.- 5 Syphilitic Coronary Arterial Stenosis.- 6 Takayasu's Disease.- 7 Cardiac Tumours and Intracavitary Thrombi.- 8 Traumatic Coronary Injuries.- 9 Coronary Artery Dissection.- 10 Cardiomyopathies.- 11 Other Diseases.- References.- X Contribution of Other Examination Techniques.- Echocardiography.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Left Ventricle.- 2.1 Contraction.- 2.2 Function.- 3 Complications of Myocardial Infarction.- 3.1 Ventricular Aneurysms.- 3.2 False Ventricular Aneurysms.- 3.3 Pericardial Effusions.- 3.4 Mitral Regurgitation.- 3.5 Rupture of the Free Wall.- 3.6 Rupture of the Septal Wall.- 3.7 Intraventricular Thromboses.- 4 Coronary Arteries.- 4.1 Procedures.- 4.1.1 Left Coronary Artery.- 4.1.2 Right Coronary Artery.- 4.1.3 Aortocoronary Bypasses.- 4.2 Normal Results.- 4.3 Atheromatous Coronary Arterial Diseases.- 4.4 Other Coronary Arterial Diseases.- 4.5 Aortocoronary Bypass Grafts.- 5 Conclusion.- Computed Axial Tomography.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Methods.- 3 Indications.- Videodensitometry.- References.- XI Therapeutic or Interventional Coronary Radiology.- 1 Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty.- 1.1 Indications.- 1.2 Technique, Preparation and Procedure.- 1.3 Results.- 1.4 The Present and Future Role of Angioplasty.- 2 Selective Intracoronary Thrombolysis.- 2.1 Indications for and Aims of the Treatment.- 2.2 Technique and Protocol.- 2.3 Results.- 2.4 The Present and Future Role of Thrombolysis.- References.- Recommended General Reference Books.