Concepts in Toxicology

Concepts in Toxicology

Hardback

By (author) J. H. Duffus, By (author) Douglas M. Templeton, By (author) Monica Nordberg, Other IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), Other John W. Lorimer

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  • Publisher: Royal Society Of Chemistry
  • Format: Hardback | 190 pages
  • Dimensions: 158mm x 236mm x 16mm | 440g
  • Publication date: 1 October 2009
  • Publication City/Country: Cambridge
  • ISBN 10: 0854041575
  • ISBN 13: 9780854041572
  • Illustrations note: 1, black & white illustrations
  • Sales rank: 1,342,255

Product description

Toxicology has never been more important. Advances in chemistry and technology offering improvements in the quality of human life become ever more rapid, bringing with them the potential for new toxicity hazards. This has led to legislation requiring toxicity testing and risk assessment for all chemicals and their uses. The new REACH (Risk Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) Regulation has profound economic consequences because, without official authorization, a chemical cannot be marketed. This book explains, in depth, the ideas underlying current advances in toxicology and its application in regulating and ensuring the safe use of chemicals. Sometimes old ideas have become assumptions that have become embedded in related laws and regulation, even though the thinking of toxicologists has moved on in line with developments in science. This leads to confusion in public understanding that the book should dispel. There are also fundamental ideas in toxicology that are not well understood concerning the concepts of hazard and risk and even about what constitutes a chemical. For many people the word 'chemical' describes manmade substances only. In fact, it is correctly applied to all substances that exist, from pure elements to the most complex biological molecules in food and medicines. This is further complicated by the complex distinction between the descriptors, 'toxic' and 'nontoxic'. Developments in epigenetics are revolutionizing our understanding of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Improved understanding of apoptosis and necrosis leads to improved interpretation of potentially toxic effects at the cellular level. The recently defined term 'chemical speciation' is driving more targeted research on the toxicity of inorganic chemicals. This book explains the concepts implied by key toxicological terms using diagrams to illustrate the relationships between them. It is an essential aid to understanding the new demands from regulators of risk assessment and to the implementation of appropriate risk management.

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Author information

J H Duffus (BSc, PhD, DSc, CChem, FRSC, CSci, CBiol) is Director of the Edinburgh Centre for Toxicology. He has acted as a consultant to the International Programme on Chemical Safety, the World Health Organization and the European Commission as well as to various industrial bodies and law firms. Dr Duffus is a member of the Royal Society of Chemistry Environment, Health, and Safety Committee and Chair of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Subcommittee on Toxicology and Risk Assessment. (IUPAC). As well as being included in the Institute of Biology Register of Environmental Biologists and UK Register of Expert Witnesses, he is a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a member of numerous scholarly societies. He has also contributed to many scientific publications in chemistry, biochemistry and toxicology. Monica Nordberg is a Professor in the Institute Environmental Medicine at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. She has acted as a consultant to the International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Indian Medical Research Council and US National Academy of Science. Professor Nordberg is also Chair of the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals (International Commission on Occupational Health), Swedish Representative of the EU Strategy on Environment and Health, Technical Working Group on Indicators and Priority Diseases and project leader on several IUPAC initiatives. She is a member of several academic societies, the editorial boards of a number of learned journals and has contributed to numerous books and journals in the field. Douglas M. Templeton is a Professor in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto He is President of IUPAC division VII (Chemistry and Human Health), Chair of the Medical Advisory Committee of the Thalassemia Foundation of Canada, Past Chair of the Pharmacology and Toxicology Grants Panel of the Canadian Institute of Health Research.

Review quote

"Combining the two publications in the form of a book was a logical development that permitted the relationships between the concepts to be further developed and clarified using concept diagrams."This approach is refected in the structure of the book, which develops concepts starting with fundamental principles of toxicology and risk assessment through the molecular, cellular and organismal levels to a culmination in ecotoxicology." Chemistry International, Volume 32 No. 1, P25

Back cover copy

Toxicology has never been more important. Advances in chemistry and technology, offering improvements in the quality of human life, have become ever more rapid, bringing with them the need for appropriate management to ensure that the benefits of new substances are not accompanied by problems of toxicity. Safe use of chemicals requires a common understanding of scientific terminology and of its usage, between scientists in related disciplines, between scientists and regulators, and between regulators and the public, at both national and international level. Concepts in Toxicology is a one-stop reference for all those who now need to understand the fundamental toxicological concepts that underlie both the scientific development of the subject and its practical application in regulation and management of chemical safety. These concepts are often taken for granted by practitioners and the inherent assumptions are left unstated. This book provides full explanations of the meaning and use of toxicological terms chosen for their frequent occurrence in the literature and their importance in merging chemistry and toxicology. Concepts in Toxicology reflects current scientific knowledge and is designed to provide a readily available aid in responding to new demands from regulators for risk assessment and for the implementation of appropriate risk management to protect human health and the natural environment. Concepts in Toxicology should be an essential reference for anyone working in toxicology, chemicals management, or the implementation of legislation such as the new REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) Regulation now being implemented throughout the European Union. It will also help those concerned with the development of the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) that may eventually supersede REACH. The authors have written a text designed to be a guide to concepts in toxicology that are fundamental both to where the subject is today and where it is going tomorrow.

Table of contents

Chapter 1: Concept Group 1. Concepts Applying to All Levels of Toxicology; Chapter 2: Concept Group 2. Concepts Applying to Molecular and Cellular Toxicology; Chapter 3: Concept Group 3. Concepts Applying to Whole Organism Toxicology; Chapter 4: Concept Group 4. Concepts Applying to Environmental Toxicology; Subject Index