Bluetooth Low Energy: The Developer's Handbook

Bluetooth Low Energy: The Developer's Handbook

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By (author) Robin Heydon

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  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Format: Paperback | 368 pages
  • Dimensions: 178mm x 232mm x 20mm | 599g
  • Publication date: 7 November 2012
  • Publication City/Country: Upper Saddle River
  • ISBN 10: 013288836X
  • ISBN 13: 9780132888363
  • Sales rank: 185,552

Product description

The First Complete Guide to Bluetooth Low Energy: How It Works, What It Can Do, and How to Apply It A radical departure from conventional Bluetooth technology, Bluetooth low energy (BLE) enables breakthrough wireless applications in industries ranging from healthcare to transportation. Running on a coin-sized battery, BLE can operate reliably for years, connecting and extending everything from personal area network devices to next-generation sensors. Now, one of the standard's leading developers has written the first comprehensive, accessible introduction to BLE for every system developer, designer, and engineer. Robin Heydon, a member of the Bluetooth SIG Hall of Fame, has brought together essential information previously scattered through multiple standards documents, sharing the context and expert insights needed to implement high-performance working systems. He first reviews BLE's design goals, explaining how they drove key architectural decisions, and introduces BLE's innovative usage models. Next, he thoroughly covers how the two main parts of BLE, the controller and host, work together, and then addresses key issues from security and profiles through testing and qualification. This knowledge has enabled the creation of Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready devices. This guide is an indispensable companion to the official BLE standards documents and is for every technical professional and decision-maker considering BLE, planning BLE products, or transforming plans into working systems. Topics Include * BLE device types, design goals, terminology, and core concepts * Architecture: controller, host, applications, and stack splits * Usage models: presence detection, data broadcasting, connectionless models, and gateways * Physical Layer: modulation, frequency band, radio channels, power, tolerance, and range * Direct Test Mode: transceiver testing, hardware interfaces, and HCI * Link Layer: state machine, packets, channels, broadcasting, encryption, and optimization * HCI: physical/logical interfaces, controller setup, and connection management * L2CAP: channels and packet structure, and LE signaling channels * Attributes: grouping, services, characteristics, and protocols * Security: pairing, bonding, and data signing * Generic Access Profiles: roles, modes, procedures, security modes, data advertising, and services * Applications, devices, services, profiles, and peripherals * Testing/qualification: starting projects, selecting features, planning, testing, compliance, and more

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Author information

Robin Heydon began working on the Wibree project in 2007-a project that evolved into the Bluetooth low energy specification covered here. Heydon cochaired the original specification group and drove the spec through to publication. Heydon has worked in wireless communications since 2000, first as a firmware engineer and now as a full-time standards architect. He has contributed to fixing and improving every version of the Bluetooth specification. In 2010, in recognition of his work, he was honored as one of only a small group of members of the Bluetooth SIG Hall of Fame.

Table of contents

Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix About the Author xxi Part I: Overview 1 Chapter 1: What Is Bluetooth Low Energy? 3 1.1 Device Types 6 1.2 Design Goals 7 1.3 Terminology 9 Chapter 2: Basic Concepts 11 2.1 Button-Cell Batteries 11 2.2 Time Is Energy 12 2.3 Memory Is Expensive 13 2.4 Asymmetric Design 14 2.5 Design For Success 15 2.6 Everything Has State 16 2.7 Client-Server Architecture 17 2.8 Modular Architecture 18 2.9 One Billion Is a Small Number 19 2.10 Connectionless Model 19 2.11 Paradigms 20 Chapter 3: Architecture 27 3.1 Controller 27 3.2 The Host 32 3.3 The Application Layer 36 3.4 Stack Splits 38 Chapter 4: New Usage Models 41 4.1 Presence Detection 41 4.2 Broadcasting Data 42 4.3 Connectionless Model 43 4.4 Gateways 44 Part II: Controller 47 Chapter 5: The Physical Layer 49 5.1 Background 49 5.2 Analog Modulation 49 5.3 Digital Modulation 51 5.4 Frequency Band 54 5.5 Modulation 54 5.6 Radio Channels 55 5.7 Transmit Power 56 5.8 Tolerance 57 5.9 Receiver Sensitivity 57 5.10 Range 58 Chapter 6: Direct Test Mode 61 6.1 Background 61 6.2 Transceiver Testing 62 6.3 Hardware Interface 65 6.4 Direct Testing by Using HCI 67 Chapter 7: The Link Layer 69 7.1 The Link Layer State Machine 69 7.2 Packets 76 7.3 Packet Structure 79 7.4 Channels 84 7.5 Finding Devices 90 7.6 Broadcasting 92 7.7 Creating Connections 93 7.8 Sending Data 98 7.9 Encryption 104 7.10 Managing Connections 109 7.11 Robustness 120 7.12 Optimizations for Low Power 123 Chapter 8: The Host/Controller Interface 131 8.1 Introduction 131 8.2 Physical Interfaces 131 8.3 Logical Interface 135 8.4 Controller Setup 140 8.5 Broadcasting and Observing 148 8.6 Initiating Connections 153 8.7 Connection Management 158 Part III: Host 167 Chapter 9: Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol 169 9.1 Background 169 9.2 L2CAP Channels 171 9.3 The L2CAP Packet Structure 172 9.4 The LE Signaling Channel 173 Chapter 10: Attributes 179 10.1 Background 179 10.2 Attributes 189 10.3 Grouping 199 10.4 Services 199 10.5 Characteristics 210 10.6 The Attribute Protocol 217 10.7 The Generic Attribute Profile 231 Chapter 11: Security 241 11.1 Security Concepts 241 11.2 Pairing and Bonding 248 11.3 Signing of Data 252 Chapter 12: The Generic Access Profile 255 12.1 Background 255 12.2 GAP Roles 261 12.3 Modes and Procedures 262 12.4 Security Modes 270 12.5 Advertising Data 273 12.6 GAP Service 276 Part IV: Application 281 Chapter 13: Central 283 13.1 Background 283 13.2 Discovering Devices 283 13.3 Connecting to Devices 285 13.4 What Does This Device Do? 286 13.5 Generic Clients 287 13.6 Interacting with Services 288 13.7 Bonding 292 13.8 Changed Services 293 13.9 Implementing Profiles 294 Chapter 14: Peripherals 299 14.1 Background 299 14.2 Broadcast Only 299 14.3 Being Discoverable 300 14.4 Being Connectable 301 14.5 Exposing Services 301 14.6 Characteristics 302 14.7 Security Matters 303 14.8 Optimizing for Low Power 303 14.9 Optimizing Attributes 311 Chapter 15: Testing and Qualification 313 15.1 Starting a Project 313 15.2 Selecting Features 316 15.3 Consistency Check 316 15.4 Generating a Test Plan 317 15.5 Creating a Compliance Folder 317 15.6 Qualification Testing 318 15.7 Qualify Your Design 319 15.8 Declaring Compliance 320 15.9 Listing 321 15.10 Combining Components 321 Index 323