Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 2: Problems and Sources in History

Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 2: Problems and Sources in History


By (author) Perry M. Rogers

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  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Format: Paperback | 480 pages
  • Dimensions: 186mm x 232mm x 24mm | 662g
  • Publication date: 26 February 2010
  • Publication City/Country: Boston, MA
  • ISBN 10: 0205708323
  • ISBN 13: 9780205708321
  • Edition: 7, Revised
  • Edition statement: 7th Revised edition
  • Illustrations note: black & white illustrations

Product description

This reader is appropriate as a main text or a supplementary text for introductory-level survey courses in Western Civilization and European History and Civilization. Aspects of Western Civilization : Problems and Sources in History, Volume 2, 7/e, challenges students with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. This collection of diverse primary sources explores a wide variety of issues and is organized around seven major themes: the Power Structure, Social and Spiritual Values, the Institution and the Individual, Imperialism, Revolution and Historical Transition, the Varieties of Truth, and Women in History.

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Author information

Perry M. Rogers received his B.A. from San Jose State University, his M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington where he specialized in ancient history with fields in medieval history, and Early Modern Europe. He has been a professor of Roman history at the Ohio State University and has held an adjunct position in the Liberal Arts at the Pontifical College Josephinum for several years. He remains Chair of the History Department at Columbus School for Girls, an independent, college preparatory school in Columbus, Ohio. Rogers's two-volume publications for Pearson/Prentice Hall include Aspects of Western Civilization (7th edition), Aspects of World History, and The Human Spirit: Sources in the Western Humanities.

Back cover copy

The seventh edition of "Aspects of Western Civilization "maintains balanced coverage of historical periods while restructuring several chapters and enhancing coverage in particular areas. It also offers additional pedagogical resources for the instructor and additional guidance for students. "Structural Changes: " There are two new chapters in Volume 2 designed to help students better understand the development of nationalism and subsequent political unification movements during the nineteenth century ( Paths of Glory: Napoleon and the Romantic Movement and Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism ). Chapter 10 ( Fin de Siecle: The Birth of the Modern Era ) has been restructured for greater continuity. There are also two new chapters added at the end of Volume 2 ( The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation and The Dynamics of Change in the Contemporary World ) in order to expand coverage of the Cold War from 1945 to 1990 and to focus in greater detail on events in the contemporary world from 1990-2010. "Enhanced Coverage: " Beyond the additional coverage from 1945 to 2010, several chapters in both volumes have been expanded to enhance the study of important topics: Hebrew prophets (Amos and Isaiah), early Greek literature (Sappho, Pindar, and Hesiod), values in the early and middle Roman Republic (Livy), and visions of the New World (Thomas More and Michel de Montaigne) in Volume 1. Enhanced coverage in Volume 2 includes the American Declaration of Independence; Romantic poetry of Schiller, Goethe, and Byron; perspectives on the slave trade from Olaudah Equiano and William Wilberforce; additional nationalist sources from Alexis de Tocqueville and Theodor Herzl; and enhanced coverage of nineteenth century feminist movements (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Ibsen s "A Doll s House"). Several selections also have been added to the coverage of the Holocaust and there are new sections on Serbian genocide in the Balkans in the 1990s, including the papal response. Coverage of the Cold War focuses on internal rebellion (Hungarian and Czechoslovakian revolutions), the Brezhnev Doctrine, and post-Cold War developments of eastern European and Balkan states. Finally, a new section on The Islamic World and the West concentrates on economic relationships between Turkey and the European Union, and Muslim relationships with France and the United States. "New Feature Selections: " Several new Feature selections have been added to the seventh edition, including a new rubric in Volume 1 entitled The Historian at Work. This Feature introduces students to historiography as well as to critical method, and provides longer excerpts from several of the most important historians of the ancient and medieval worlds (Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy, Tacitus, Josephus, Appian, and Usamah ibn-Munqidh). New Feature selections often focus on the integration of art and architecture into the political mainstream as revolutionary cultural elements (Giotto, Bernini and St. Peter s Basilica, Beethoven s Eroica Symphony, Francisco Goya and Napoleon, Eugene Delacroix and the Greek Revolution of 1820, the social perspective by train during the Industrial Revolution, the insular world of Edvard Munch, and the nightmare visions of Otto Dix during World War I). New Features also include Theodor Herzl and the Zionist movement, excerpts from "A Doll s House "by Henrik Ibsen, Pope John Paul II on the Serbian genocide, and President Barack Obama s 2009 speech to the Muslim world in Egypt regarding a new beginning with the West. "New Pedagogical Aids: " Every effort has been made in the seventh edition to aid both instructors and students in using the text for discussions and class papers. Chapter opening essays and introductions to the primary sources have been reviewed and edited to establish a strong sense of historical continuity, and study questions have been clarified and refined to solicit specific information and offer a broader perspective on the abstract implications of ideas and events. Author Perry Rogers has inserted additional secondary sources on the decline of the Roman Empire and focused some questions on contending ideas under the rubric: Taking Sides. He has edited and modernized translations to clarify ideas and bring older idioms into conformity with modern usage. Study questions have been numbered for easier reference in class discussions and written assignments. "New " Key Events chronologies have been added to each chapter and have been placed near corresponding coverage, giving students a solid historical reference point. New Organizational Tool for Instructors: A "new " Thematic Index is available to "instructors" for download in PDF format to assist in developing comparative ideas across time and, ultimately, to make it easier to teach the course. This Thematic Index groups each primary source by chapter according to the seven themes listed in the Preface. Some sources are cross-referenced under multiple rubrics as application warrants. This superb organizational tool can be downloaded in PDF format from Pearson s online catalog at Select Educators from the menu options and follow the instructions labeled Download Instructor Resources. "

Table of contents

PREFACE PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF THE MODERN WORLD Chapter 1: The Age of the Renaissance and Reformation  SECTION I:  THE RENAISSANCE MOVEMENTThe Humanist MovementOration on the Dignity of Man (1486), Pico della MirandolaThe Soul of Man (1474), Marcilio Ficino The Political Life of FlorenceThe Rule of Cosimo deâ Medici, VespasianoThe Prince: â Everyone Sees What You Appear to Be, Few Perceive What You Areâ             Niccol� Machiavelli SECTION II:  THE REFORMATION ERAThe Lutheran Reformationâ How Many Sins Are Committed in a Single Day?â (1517), Johann TetzelSalvation Through Faith Alone, Martin LutherThe Ninety-five Theses (1517), Martin Lutherâ Here I Standâ :  Address at the Diet of Worms (1521), Martin LutherThe Edict of Worms (1521), Emperor Charles V In the Wake of LutherJohn Calvin and the Genevan ReformationOn the Necessity of Reforming the Church (1544), John CalvinPredestination: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536), John Calvin The Catholic ReformationSpiritual Exercises (1548), Ignatius LoyolaThe Council of Trent:  Profession of FaithThe Tridentine Index of Books (1564)   Chapter 2: â I Am the Stateâ : The Development of Absolutism in England and France  The English Revolution (1649-1689) The Struggle for Constitutional Government (1650-1660) â The Mortal Godâ : Leviathan (1651), Thomas HobbesThe Instrument of Government (December 16, 1653)Cromwell Denies the Crown (May 8, 1657), Oliver Cromwell The Reflection in the Mirror: Oliver Cromwell: The Lord Protectorâ To You Our Country Owes Its Libertiesâ            John Miltonâ Guilty of Crimes for which Hell-Fire Is Preparedâ , Edward Hyde The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution (1660-1689) â A Force Sufficient to Defend Us from the Violence of Those Evil Counsellorsâ , William of OrangeThe Bill of Rights (1689) The Absolutism of Louis XIV The Theory of Divine-Right Monarchy The Ideal Absolute State (1697), Jean DomatPolitics and Scripture (1679), Jacques Benigne BossuetThe Sun King and the Practice of Absolute Rule â Vanity Was His Ruinâ , The Duke of Saint-SimonLetters to His Heirs: â Allow Good Sense to Actâ , King Louis XIVâ A Frightful Plotâ : The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, The Duke of Saint-Simon The Artistic Vision: The Palace of Versaillesâ A Celebration of Greatnessâ , Jean ColbertVisible Majesty, King Louis XIV  Chapter 3: â Dare to Know!â : The Scientific Revolution  Science and the Church The Heliocentric Statement (ca. 1520), Nicolaus CopernicusOn the Movement of the Earth (1543), Nicolaus CopernicusScience and the Bible: â They Would Have Us Abandon Reasonâ (1615), Galileo Galilei The Reflection in the Mirror: Galileo Absolved: The Resolutionâ Science and Faith Are Both Gifts from Godâ (1993)    Pope John Paul II The Foundations of Modern Science The Advancement of Learning (1605), Sir Francis Baconâ I Think, Therefore I Amâ : Discourse on Method (1637), Ren� Eescartes Against the Grain: On the Circulation of the Blood  (1628)                            â A Motion, As It Were, In a Circleâ       William  Harvey Principles of Analysisâ Induction and God: Optics (1704)        Sir Isaac Newton Chapter 4: The Enlightenment and the Revolution of the MindThoughts on the Human Condition and Human Progress The Blank Slate of the Mind: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)      John Locke Against the Grain: On Crimes and Punishments  (1764)â The Greatest Happiness of the Greatest Numberâ , Cesare Beccaria Thoughts on Religion Godâ â A Cause Contradicted by Its Effectsâ : Common Sense (1770), Baron dâ HolbachOn Universal Toleration, Voltaireâ If God Did Not Exist, He Would Have to Be Inventedâ , Voltaire Thoughts on Education Introduction to the Encyclopedia (1751), Jean Le Rond dâ Alembertâ We Did Not Live Entirely in Vainâ (1764), Denis Diderot Thoughts on Government: The Political Framework Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690), John LockeThe Spirit of the Laws (1748), Baron  de montesquieuThe Social Contract (1762), Jean Jacques RousseauThe Declaration of Independence (1776), Thomas Jefferson Thoughts on Women: The Social Framework Woman: â Especially Constituted to Please Manâ , Jean Jacques RousseauA Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792), Mary Wollstonecraft Thoughts on Commerce: The Economic Framework The Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith PART II : THE ERA OF REVOLUTION  Chapter 5: â Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!â :  The French Revolution  Conditions of Society on the Eve of Revolution The Corruption of the French Court, Marquis dâ Argensonâ Ancient Oaks Mutilated by Timeâ  , Marquis de BouilleThe Grievances of Carcassonne                                                            Beggars, Rags, and Misery, Arthur Young  The Outbreak of Revolution (1789â 1791) â What Is the Third Estate?â (January 1789), the Abb� Aiey�sWomen of the Third Estate: â We Ask to Be Enlightenedâ (January 1789)The Tennis Court Oath (June 29, 1789)The Fall of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)Declaration of the Rights of Man (August 27, 1789) Against the Grain: The Flip Side of Liberty                         Declaration of the Rights of Woman (1791), Olympe de Gouges Reflections on the Revolution (1790), Edmund Burke  The Radicalization of the Revolution (1792â 1794) The Fall of Louis XVI (1792-1793) The Execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793), Henry Edgeworth de FirmontProclamation of the Convention to the French People (January 23, 1793)Reflections on Louis XVI, Mme RolandThe Reflection in the Mirror: A Revolutionary Reality CheckAn Update on the Political Rights of Women (1793) The Reign of Terror (1793-1794)  â You Would Exterminate All Your Enemies by the Guillotine!â (December 20, 1793), Camille Desmoulins The Artistic Vision: Jean-Claude Marat:  â The Martyr of the Revolutionâ The Death of Marat (1793), Jacques-Louis David            â Virtue and Terrorâ : Speech to the Convention (February 5, 1794), Maximilien  RobespierreThe Administration of Terror (June 10, 1794)The Execution of Robespierre (July 28, 1794), Durand de Maillane   Chapter 6: Paths of Glory: Napoleon and the Romantic Movement                The Napoleonic Era (1796-1815) The Will to Power (1796-1802)                                                                                                                        On the Realities of Power (1796), Napoleon BonaparteSuppression of the Newspapers (1800)Articles for the Catholic Church (1802) The Imperial Mantle (1804-1806) â The Only Salvation Lies in Hereditary Powerâ (December 1804), Napoleon BonaparteWhy the French Submitted to Napoleonâ s Rule (1804), Comtesse de R�musatThe Imperial Catechism (April 1806) Exile and Death: The Hero in History Napoleon in Exile:  â We Stand as Martyrs to an Immortal Cause!â , Napoleon BonaparteThe Role of Great Men in History, G. W. F. HegelAgainst the Grain: Beethovenâ s Eroica: â To the Memory of a Great Manâ Portrait of Beethoven, Joseph Karl StielerOde to Joy, Friedrich Schiller The Romantic Movement (1780-1830) The Erlking, Johann Wolfgang von GoetheTerror and the Macabre:  Frankenstein (1818), Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley The Artistic Vision: â The Tyrant of Europeâ Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte, Lord Byron     The Third of May, 1808 , Francisco Goya            Chapter 7:  â A World to Win!â : The Industrial Revolution Rural and Urban Transformations The Dependent Poor (1795), David Daviesâ How Are Men to Provide for Their Families?â :  A Workers Petition (1786) The Urban Landscape The Factory System Sybil (1845), Benjamin DisraeliThe Sadler Report:  â Not Many as Deformed as I Amâ (1832)Child LaborA Defense of the Factory System (1835), Andrew Ure Living Conditions    The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844), Friedrich Engels   The Impact of the Factory System on Women and the Family, Friedrich EngelsReaction and Reform Against the Grain: The Horrors of the Slave Trade â A Scene of Horror Almost Inconceivableâ  , Olauda Eqianoâ We Can No Longer Plead Ignoranceâ , William Wilberforce Law and Liberty: The Liberal Truth The Iron Law of Wages (1817), David RicardoThe Chartist Demands (1838)A Middle-Class Perspective (1859), Samuel Smiles The Artistic Vision: The Social Perspective by TrainOver London by Rail , Gustave Dor�Third Class Carriage , Honor� Daumier Visions of a New World: The Socialist Truth Utopian Socialism (1816), Robert OwenThe Communist Manifesto (1848), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Reflection in the Mirror: A Papal Perspective:  Rerum Novarum (1891)â A Yoke Little Better Than That of Slavery Itselfâ , Pope Leo XIII  Chapter 8: Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism Volksgeist:  The â Spirit of the Peopleâ (1815-1850) The Conservative Confession of Faith, Prince Klemens von MetternichStirrings:  The People and the Fatherland, Johann Gottlieb FichteThe Duties of Man, Giuseppi Mazzini The Reflection in the Mirror: The Greek Revolution of 1820â To Avenge Ourselves Against a Frightful Tyrannyâ Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1826), Eug�ne Delacroix â A Moderate Amount of Happiness for All Menâ , Alexis de Tocqueville1848: â A Great Outburst of Elemental Forces Had Begunâ , Carl SchurzThe Political Unification of Italy and Germany (1850-1890) Proclamation for the Liberation of Sicily (1860), Giuseppe GaribaldiAddress to the Italian Parliament (1871), King Victor Emmanuel IIâ We Germans Fear God, and Nothing Else in the Worldâ :                       Speech to the Reichstag (1888), Otto von Bismarck Against the Grain: The Zionist MovementThe Basil Program (1897)          Chapter 9: â Mark Them with Your Dead!â : The Scramble for Global Empire â Send Forth the Best Ye Breed!â : The Foundations of Imperialism Racism and the Corruption of Science The Descent of Man (1871), Charles DarwinThe Standpoint of Science (1900),  Karl Pearson For God and Country The Mandate System: Britainâ s Duty in Egypt (1890) , Joseph Chamberlainâ France Must Be a Great Country!â   (1883), Jules FerryGermanyâ s Place in the Sun (1900), Kaiser Wilhelm IIThe White Manâ s Burden (1899), Rudyard Kipling â To Seek Anotherâ s Profit and Work Anotherâ s Gainâ  â Your New-Caught Sullen Peoplesâ  Education in India: â The Intrinsic Superiority of Western Literatureâ (1835), Thomas Babington MacaulayForeign Children, Robert Louis Stevensonâ A Natural Inclination to Submit to a Higher Authorityâ (1893) Sir Frederick Dealtry LugardThe Reflection in the Mirror  â The Judgment of Your Peersâ The â White Manâ s Faceâ : Terror in the Congo, Frederick StarrThe Battle Hymn of the Republic (Brought Down to Date), Mark Twain Chapter 10: Fin de Si�cle: The Birth of the Modern Era The Woman Question and Anti-Feminism  Seneca Falls Declaration (1848)â Sisters of America! Your Sisters of France Are United with Youâ (1851) Pauline Roland and Jeanne DeroineAgainst Woman Suffrage (1884), Francis Parkmanâ The Brain Weight of Women is Five Ounces Less Than That of Menâ (1887), George Romanes Against the Grain: The Independent WomanA Dollâ s House (1879), Henrik Ibsen            â This Is the Logic of Demons!â , Josephine Butlerâ I Incite This Meeting to Rebellionâ (1912), Emmeline Pankhurst The Revolt Against Reason Faith, Love, and Hope: â Enough!  Enough!â (1887), Friedrich Nietzscheâ God Is Dead!â , Friedrich Nietzsche The Artistic Vision: The Insular World of Edvard MunchScream (1893), Edvard Munch PART III: THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND Chapter 11: The Great War (1914-1918) The Road to War The Celebration of War â Without War, No State Could Existâ , Heinrich von Treitschkeâ Blind Obedience to Primitive Instinctsâ (1910), Norman Angell The Lamps Go Out Over Europe Statutes of â The Black Handâ Assassination at Sarajevo:  The Plot and Murder (June 28, 1914)â The Sword is Drawn!â (August 18, 1914), Kaiser Wilhelm II  â They Shall Not Passâ : The Great War (1914-1918) The Horror of Battle The Battle of Verdun (Februaryâ December 1916)The Battle of the Somme (Julyâ November 1916)No Manâ s Land,  J. Knight-Adkinâ What Are You Fighting For, Michel?â                                                 Against the Grain: Glory in the Skies:  The Red Baron â An Englishman for Breakfastâ               Baron Manfred von Richthofenâ On the Other Side of the Boundaryâ                                          Ernst Udet It Is Sweet and Proper to Die for Oneâ s Country Five Souls                                                                                                     W. N. EwerA German War Letter: â One Blood-Soaked, Corpse-Strewn Fieldâ       Richard Schiemder The Artistic Vision: The Nightmare of Otto DixDance of Death in the Year *17: Dead Man HillAftermath:  The Light That Failed â This Is the Way the World Endsâ             A German Soldier Returns Home: â A Complete Strangerâ                                Anna Eisenmengerâ If You Want to Endure Lifeâ Prepare for Deathâ                                                  Sigmund Freud  Chapter 12: The Russian Revolution and the Development of the Soviet State (1917â 1939) The Provisional Government (Marchâ November 1917) â A New, Free Russia Is Born!â : First Declaration of the Provisional Government (March 19, 1917)The April Theses (April 20, 1917)                           V. I. Lenin The Bolshevik Revolution (Novemberâ December 1917) The Overthrow of the Provisional Government: â A New Page in the History of Russiaâ              V. I. Leninâ Little Good Is To Be Expectedâ (November 8, 1917)                     IzvestiaCensorship of the Press (November 9, 1917)                                V. I. LeninEstablishment of the Secret Police (December 20, 1917)             V. I. Lenin The Aftermath of Revolution (1917-1928) State and Revolution: The Transition from Capitalism to Communism (August 1917)                            V. I. Leninâ Days of Grueling Workâ                                                                                                                                         Alexandra KollontaiThe Communist Emancipation of Women (1920)                                   V. I. Leninâ Stalin Is Too Rudeâ (January 4, 1923)                                                       V. I. LeninStalinâ s Falsification of History (1927)                                                      Leon Trotsky The Development of the Totalitarian State (1928-1938) The Artistic Vision: The Soviet Creation of Belief                                                       Industrial Worker and Collective Farm Girl (1937)              Vera Mukhina         The Soviet Control of Society Industrialization: â Either Perish or Overtake Capitalistic Countriesâ (1931)                           Joseph StalinCollectivization and the Liquidation of the Kulaks (1929)                                                         Joseph Stalinâ For the Fatherland!â (1936)    pravdaThe Purge Trials: â Traitors Must Be Shot Like Dirty Dogs!â (1938)                                          Andrei VyshinskyThe Gulag: â Stalinâ s Sadistic Nature Thirsted for Blood!â (1938) The Reflection in the Mirror  The Orwellian Worldâ Power Is in Tearing Human Minds to Piecesâ    George Orwell  Chapter 13: Europe between the Wars: Fascism and the Nazi Rise to Power (1919â 1939) The Legacy of World War I The Rise of Benito Mussolini â The Stateâ s Authority Was Ready for the Graveâ (1922)                                  The Fascist March on Rome (October 26, 1922)                                               The Doctrine of Fascism: â This Will Be the Century of the Stateâ                       â Germany in Her Deepest Humiliationâ  â I Resolved Now to Become a Politicianâ                     Adolf Hitlerâ Stabbed in the Backâ (1919)                                       Paul von HindenburgThe Treaty of Versailles (1919)  The Weimar Republic Germanyâ s Unstable Democracy: The Best and Worst of Times The Weimar Constitution: Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Germans (1919)Inflation: â The Boiling Kettle of a Wicked Witchâ                                   Lilo Linke Hitlerâ s Response to Germanyâ s Problems The Nazi Program (1920)Nazi Political Rally Announcement (February 1921)                        National Socialist German Workersâ Party Nazi Appeal and Victory Nazi Propaganda Nationalists, Socialists, and Jews (1930)                                             Joseph GoebbelsFree Germany! (1932)Nazi Victory by the Numbers:  Elections to the German Reichstag (1924â 1932) Chancellor to Dictator Decree for the Protection of the People and State (February 28, 1933)The Enabling Act (March 24, 1933)Law Against the New Formation of Parties (July 14, 1933)Law Concerning the Head of the German State (August 1, 1934) The Role of the Family in the Nazi State â Our Fanatical Fellow-Combatantsâ (September 8, 1934)                    Adolf Hitlerâ The Disenfranchisement of Womenâ                                                       Hanna SchmittHitler Youth: â Tough As Leather, Hard As Krupp Steelâ                         Adolf Hitler Conversion and Resistance â Now I Know Which Road to Takeâ                                          Joseph Goebbelsâ I Had Given Him My Heartâ                                                    Kurt Ludecke Against the Grain: â Guilty! Guilty!  Guilty!â                                   Leaflets of â The White Roseâ (1942)                Hans and Sophie Scholl  Chapter 14: â The Abyss Also Looks into Youâ : War and Holocaust (1939-1945)  The Road to War (1938â 1939) The Czechoslovak Crisis (September 1938â March 1939) â The Misery of the Sudeten Germans Is Indescribableâ (September 12, 1938)               Adolf Hitlerâ Czechoslovakia Has Ceased to Existâ (March 15, 1939)                                                    Adolf Hitlerâ I Bitterly Regret What Has Now Occurredâ (March 15, 1939)                                             Neville Chamberlain The Invasion of Poland (September 1939) â Our Enemies Are Little Wormsâ (August 22, 1939)                                                             Adolf Hitlerâ Everything I Have Hoped for Has Crashed into Ruinsâ (September 3, 1939)                  Neville Chamberlain Total War (1939-1943) The Battlefield and the Homefront Alone:  â Their Finest Hourâ (June 18, 1940)                                                                              Winston ChurchillThe Battle of Britain:  â So Much Owed by So Many to So Fewâ (August 20, 1940)               Winston ChurchillLondon Aflame!                                                                                                                             Mrs. Robert Henreyâ A Date Which Will Live in Infamyâ                                                                                                President Franklin Delano RooseveltWomen in the Factories: â My Hands Are as Smooth as the Steel I Worked Onâ                    Elizabeth Hawes The Jewish Holocaust (1923-1945) â The Jews Are the Cause of Our Misfortune!â  The Jewish Peril (April 1923)                                                                                    Adolf Hitlerâ Not a Single Jewâ (1932)â I Got You at Last, You Little German Girl!â (1938)                                               Ernst Hiemer The Radicalization of Anti-Semitism (1938-1941) â Jewish Ghettos Shall Have to Be Createdâ (November 12, 1938)â The Annihilation of the Jewish Race in Europe!â (January 30, 1939)                 Adolf Hitlerâ The Jews Are to Blame!â (1941)                                                                               Joseph Goebbels The Final Solution (1942-1945) â A Complete Solution to the Jewish Questionâ (July 31, 1941)                           Hermann GoeringThe Wansee Conference (January 20, 1942) The Death Camps: â Work Makes You Freeâ  Sites of Nazi Concentration CampsGenocide                                                                           Rudolf Hoess                                                                         The Pit                                                                                Hermann Gr�beGas                                                                                     Kurt GersteinMobile KillingNazi Medical Experiments                                               Dr. Franz BlahaCommandant of Auschwitz                                            Rudolf Hoess Against the Grain: Jewish ResistanceNazi Problems in the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1, 1943)    Joseph GoebbelsThe Destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1943)     J�rgen StroopManifesto of the Jewish Resistance in Vilna (September 1943)  G�tterd�mmerung:  The Final Destruction (1944â 1945) The D-Day Invasions (June 6, 1944) The Paratrooper: â He Was Blown Awayâ                                  Ken RussellThe Assault on Omaha Beach: â Iâ m Hit! Iâ m Hit!â                   Harold Baumgarten The Reflection in the Mirror  Fiftieth Anniversary of D-Day â When They Were Young, These Men Saved the Worldâ                                      President Bill ClintonThe Vision at Sixty-Five                   President Barack ObamaThe Funeral Oration of Pericles      Thucydides The Aftermath of War The Destruction of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)             Harry S TrumanNuremberg:  The Crimes of the Nazi Regime                   Justice Robert H. JacksonThe Existential Perspective (1956)                                     Jean-Paul Sartre  Chapter 15: The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation (1945-1990)  Retrenchment (1945-1960) The Reconstruction of Europe The Marshall Plan (June 1947)                                               George C. MarshallProgram for the Welfare State: The Beveridge Report The Retreat from Empire Vietnam: â Determined to Fight to the Bitter Endâ (1945)            Ho Chi MinhBritish Rule in India (1946)       JAWAHARLAL NEHRUThe Arab Nationalist Movement and Revolution (1958)             Abdul Gamal Nasser The Cold War (1945â 1990) The â Superpowerâ Rivalry The Soviet Victory: Capitalism Versus Communism (February 1946)                 Joseph Stalinâ An Iron Curtain Has Descended Across the Continentâ (March 1946)               Sir Winston ChurchillThe Truman Doctrine (March 1947)                                                                          Harry S TrumanMarx Was Wrong: The Flaws of Communism (1953)                                              Theodore WhiteHow to Spot a Communist (1955) Currents of Dissent The New Class (1957)                                     Milovan Djilasâ The Victory of Communism Is Inevitable!â : The Secret Speech (1962)                             Nikita KhrushchevPrague Spring: The Brezhnev Doctrine (1968) â A World Turned Upside Down!â : The Gorbachev Era Against the Grain: Cracks in the Berlin Wall                                    â Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall!â (June 12, 1987)                           President Ronald Reagan Perestroika and the Socialist Renewal of Society (September 11, 1989)                                   Mikhail GorbachevGorbachevâ s Resignation: â This Society Has Acquired Freedomâ (December 25, 1991)        Mikhail Gorbachev  Chapter 16: The Dynamics of Change in the Contemporary World (1990-2010)                Political and Economic Initiatives A United Germany in a United Europe (June 5, 1990)                                                                  Helmut KohlThe Reconciliation of France and Germany (September 24, 1990)                                           Fran�ois Mitterrandâ Czechoslovakia Is Re