Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 1

Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 1 : Problems and Sources in History

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This reader is appropriate as a main text or a supplementary text for introductory-level survey courses in Western Civilization and European History and Civilization. Aspects of Western Civilization : Problems and Sources in History, Volume 1, 7/e, challenges students with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. This collection of diverse primary sources explores a wide variety of issues and is organized around seven major themes: the Power Structure, Social and Spiritual Values, the Institution and the Individual, Imperialism, Revolution and Historical Transition, the Varieties of Truth, and Women in History.

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Product details

  • Paperback | 408 pages
  • 182.88 x 228.6 x 22.86mm | 589.67g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Pearson
  • Boston, MA, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 7th Revised edition
  • black & white illustrations
  • 0205708331
  • 9780205708338

Back cover copy

The seventh edition of "Aspects of Western Civilization "maintains balanced coverage of historical periods while restructuring several chapters and enhancing coverage in particular areas. It also offers additional pedagogical resources for the instructor and additional guidance for students. "Structural Changes: " There are two new chapters in Volume 2 designed to help students better understand the development of nationalism and subsequent political unification movements during the nineteenth century ( Paths of Glory: Napoleon and the Romantic Movement and Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism ). Chapter 10 ( Fin de Siecle: The Birth of the Modern Era ) has been restructured for greater continuity. There are also two new chapters added at the end of Volume 2 ( The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation and The Dynamics of Change in the Contemporary World ) in order to expand coverage of the Cold War from 1945 to 1990 and to focus in greater detail on events in the contemporary world from 1990-2010. "Enhanced Coverage: " Beyond the additional coverage from 1945 to 2010, several chapters in both volumes have been expanded to enhance the study of important topics: Hebrew prophets (Amos and Isaiah), early Greek literature (Sappho, Pindar, and Hesiod), values in the early and middle Roman Republic (Livy), and visions of the New World (Thomas More and Michel de Montaigne) in Volume 1. Enhanced coverage in Volume 2 includes the American Declaration of Independence; Romantic poetry of Schiller, Goethe, and Byron; perspectives on the slave trade from Olaudah Equiano and William Wilberforce; additional nationalist sources from Alexis de Tocqueville and Theodor Herzl; and enhanced coverage of nineteenth century feminist movements (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Ibsen s "A Doll s House"). Several selections also have been added to the coverage of the Holocaust and there are new sections on Serbian genocide in the Balkans in the 1990s, including the papal response. Coverage of the Cold War focuses on internal rebellion (Hungarian and Czechoslovakian revolutions), the Brezhnev Doctrine, and post-Cold War developments of eastern European and Balkan states. Finally, a new section on The Islamic World and the West concentrates on economic relationships between Turkey and the European Union, and Muslim relationships with France and the United States. "New Feature Selections: " Several new Feature selections have been added to the seventh edition, including a new rubric in Volume 1 entitled The Historian at Work. This Feature introduces students to historiography as well as to critical method, and provides longer excerpts from several of the most important historians of the ancient and medieval worlds (Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy, Tacitus, Josephus, Appian, and Usamah ibn-Munqidh). New Feature selections often focus on the integration of art and architecture into the political mainstream as revolutionary cultural elements (Giotto, Bernini and St. Peter s Basilica, Beethoven s Eroica Symphony, Francisco Goya and Napoleon, Eugene Delacroix and the Greek Revolution of 1820, the social perspective by train during the Industrial Revolution, the insular world of Edvard Munch, and the nightmare visions of Otto Dix during World War I). New Features also include Theodor Herzl and the Zionist movement, excerpts from "A Doll s House "by Henrik Ibsen, Pope John Paul II on the Serbian genocide, and President Barack Obama s 2009 speech to the Muslim world in Egypt regarding a new beginning with the West. "New Pedagogical Aids: " Every effort has been made in the seventh edition to aid both instructors and students in using the text for discussions and class papers. Chapter opening essays and introductions to the primary sources have been reviewed and edited to establish a strong sense of historical continuity, and study questions have been clarified and refined to solicit specific information and offer a broader perspective on the abstract implications of ideas and events. Author Perry Rogers has inserted additional secondary sources on the decline of the Roman Empire and focused some questions on contending ideas under the rubric: Taking Sides. He has edited and modernized translations to clarify ideas and bring older idioms into conformity with modern usage. Study questions have been numbered for easier reference in class discussions and written assignments. "New " Key Events chronologies have been added to each chapter and have been placed near corresponding coverage, giving students a solid historical reference point. New Organizational Tool for Instructors: A "new " Thematic Index is available to "instructors" for download in PDF format to assist in developing comparative ideas across time and, ultimately, to make it easier to teach the course. This Thematic Index groups each primary source by chapter according to the seven themes listed in the Preface. Some sources are cross-referenced under multiple rubrics as application warrants. This superb organizational tool can be downloaded in PDF format from Pearson s online catalog at www.pearsonhighered.com. Select Educators from the menu options and follow the instructions labeled Download Instructor Resources. "

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About Perry M. Rogers

Perry M. Rogers received his B.A. from San Jose State University, his M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington where he specialized in ancient history with fields in medieval history, and Early Modern Europe. He has been a professor of Roman history at the Ohio State University and has held an adjunct position in the Liberal Arts at the Pontifical College Josephinum for several years. He remains Chair of the History Department at Columbus School for Girls, an independent, college preparatory school in Columbus, Ohio. Rogers's two-volume publications for Pearson/Prentice Hall include Aspects of Western Civilization (7th edition), Aspects of World History, and The Human Spirit: Sources in the Western Humanities.

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Table of contents

PREFACE PART I: THE FOUNDATIONS OF CIVILIZATION Chapter 1: Civilization in the Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Israel Mesopotamian Civilization The Reign of Sargon The Code of Hammurabi The Epic of Gilgamesh The Biblical Flood Egyptian Civilization The Authority of the Pharaohs Building the Pyramids Herodotus Mummification Herodotus Ramses the Great The Artistic Vision: The Great Pyramids Egyptian Religion and Values Instructions of Kagemni The Pyramid Texts The Book of the Dead: Negative Confession Against the Grain: The Amarna Revolution The Hymn to Aten Akhenaten Hebrew Civilization Origins, Oppression, and the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt The Creation of the World Paradise and the Fall from Grace The Hebrew Bondage The Burning Bush The Mission of Moses The Departure of the Israelites Covenant and Commandments The Ten Commandments The Covenant Code Wisdom and Psalms Job: "Clothed In Fearful Splendor" Psalm 104: "All Creatures Depend On You" Prophets: Amos, Isaiah, and Jeremiah Amos: "Let Justice Flow Like Water" Yahweh: "There Is No God Except Me" Isaiah's Vision of Everlasting Peace The Reflection in the Mirror: The New Covenant of Jeremiah "Deep Within Them, I Shall Plant My Law" PART II: THE GREEK WORLD Chapter 2: Legend and History: The World of Early Greece The Trojan War: Homer's Iliad The Wrath of Achilles Homer The Death of Hector Homer Homecoming: The Odyssey of Homer The Adventure of the Cyclops Homer Odysseus in the Underworld Homer The Return of Odysseus Homer Early Greek Literature (700-500 B.C.E.) Pandora's Box of Evil Hesiod Works and Days: Advice for the Wise Hesiod Greek Love Poetry Sappho The Celebration of Athletic Glory Pindar Chapter 3: Democracy and Empire: The Golden Age of Athens The Greek Polis: Two Ways of Life "Man Is a Political Animal" Aristotle The City-State of Sparta: Reforms of Lycurgus Plutarch Spartan Discipline Plutarch "Happiness Depends on Being Free, and Freedom Depends on Courage": The Funeral Oration of Pericles (430 B.C.E.) Thucydides The Historian at Work Herodotus "As Rich as Croesus": The Happiest of Men? The Persian Wars and the Defense of Greece (490-480 B.C.E.) "The Spartans Will Fight" Herodotus The 300 Spartans at Thermopylae (480 B.C.E.) Herodotus Greek Tragedy (480-430 B.C.E.) Oedipus the King (430 B.C.E.) Sophocles Antigone (441 B.C.E.) Sophocles The Athenian Empire, War, and Decline (480-404 B.C.E.) The Historian at Work: Thucydides Bloodbath at Corcyra The Mytilenian Debate (427 B.C.E.) Thucydides The Melian Dialogue (416 B.C.E.) Thucydides The Reflection in the Mirror Hubris: The Conceit of Power The Trojan Women (415 B.C.E.) Euripides The Sicilian Disaster (413 B.C.E.) Thucydides Women and War: Lysistrata (411 B.C.E.) Aristophanes Against the Grain The Trial of Socrates "You Will Not Easily Find Another Like Me" Plato Chapter 4: The Age of Alexander the Great The Rise of Macedon and the Fall of Greece The First Philippic (351 B.C.E.) Demosthenes "They Speak of Nothing But Your Power" (346 B.C.E.) Isocrates On the Crown (330 B.C.E.) Demosthenes Alexander the Great? "Carve Out a Kingdom Worthy of Yourself!" Plutarch The Destruction of Persepolis Diodorus Siculus The Character and Leadership of Alexander Arrian "Making Humankind a Single People" Plutarch The Thought of the Age The Philosophy of Plato The Unenlightened Majority Plato Allegory of the Cave Plato The Equality of Women in the State Plato The Thought of Aristotle Virtue and Moderation: The Doctrine of the Mean Aristotle The Status of Women Aristotle PART III: THE ROMAN WORLD Chapter 5: The Roman Republic: Origins, Breakdown, and Rebirth Roman Virtues in the Early and Middle Republic (753-150 B.C.E.) The Historian at Work: Titus Livy The Power of the Past The Oath of the Horatii: "One of the Great Stories of Ancient Times" Livy The Rape of Lucretia Livy The Courage of Mucius Scaevola Livy "Hannibal at the Gates!" Livy "Cracks in the Wall": The Breakdown Begins (150-100 B.C. E.) The Destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.E.) Appian The Growth of the Latifundia Appian The Murder of Tiberius Gracchus (133 B.C.E.) Plutarch "Vengeance with Excessive Cruelty" Sallust The Fall of the Roman Republic (100-31 B.C.E.) The Historian at Work: Appian The Revolt of Spartacus The Civil War (49-45 B.C.E.) "The Die Is Cast": Caesar Crosses the Rubicon Suetonius "We Must Trust to the Mercy of the Storm" Cicero Julius Caesar: The Colossus That Bestrode the World? Caesar's Reforms Suetonius Abuse of Power Suetonius The Assassination of Julius Caesar (44 B.C.E.) Plutarch The Power Vacuum (44-31 B.C.E.) "A Public Prostitute": The Philippic Against Mark Antony Cicero The Murder of Cicero: "Antony's Greatest and Bitterest Enemy" Appian Against the Grain Cleopatra: Queen of the Nile "The Attraction Was Something Bewitching" Plutarch "She Was No Weak-Kneed Woman" Horace The Establishment of the Augustan Principate (31-27 B.C.E.) The Powers and Authority of the Emperor Dio Cassius The Transition from Republic to Principate Tacitus Res Gestae: The Accomplishments of Augustus Augustus The Mission: "To Spare the Conquered and Crush the Proud" Virgil Chapter 6: Caesar and Christ RomanStateReligion and the Mystery Cults The Imperial Cult: The Deification of Augustus Dio Cassius Invasion of the Eastern Cults Minucius Felix Orgiastic Frenzy Apuleius The Message of Jesus The Baptism of Jesus The Sermon on the Mount The Good Samaritan The Mission of Jesus Instructions to the Twelve Disciples Peter: The Rock Suffering, Persecution, and the Son of Man The Final Judgment The Work of Paul Paul's Answer to the Intellectuals "Neither Jew Nor Greek, Male Nor Female" The Resurrection of Christ Conflict and the Development of the Christian Church Roman Imperial Policy Regarding Jews and Christians The Historian at Work: Flavius Josephus Mass Suicide at Masada The Persecution of Christians Under Nero (64 C.E.) Tacitus "The Infection of This Superstition Has Spread" Pliny the Younger "A Religion of Lust": Anti-Christian Propaganda Minucius Felix The Reflection in the Mirror "Christians to the Lions!" A Christian Defense Tertullian The Early Church Fathers First Principles of the Early Church (225 C.E.) Origen The City of God Saint Augustine Against the Grain Augustine: From Sinner to Saint The Confessions Saint Augustine The Triumph of Christianity The Petrine Theory Pope Leo I Loyalty to the Pope: Oath to Gregory II (723 C.E.) Bishop Boniface Chapter 7:The Pax Romana and the Decline of Rome Strength and Success (14-180 C.E.) Political and Military Control The Imperial Army Favius Josephus A Roman Triumph Zonaras Imperial Patronage Pliny the Younger Techniques of Roman Control Tacitus The Historian at Work: Tacitus The Murder of Agrippina "All Roads Lead to Rome" The Glory of the City Strabo The Artistic Vision: The Roman Aqueduct: Pont du Gard The Magnificence of the Baths Lucian The Bath House Seneca The Dark Side of Rome Juvenal "Bread and Circuses" Fronto "The Give and Take of Death": Gladiatorial Combat Seneca "Charming Privacy": The Rural Aristocrat Pliny the Younger Social and Intellectual Aspects of the Pax Romana The Roman Woman "Subordinate Beauty" Valerius Maximus The Funeral Eulogy of Turia Quintus Lucretius Vespillo Slavery in the Roman Empire A Slave Rebellion Pliny the Younger The Proper Treatment of Slaves Seneca Social Mobility: "Once a Mere Worm, Now a King" Petronius The Stoic Philosophy "What Is the Principal Thing in Life?" Seneca Meditations Marcus Aurelius Failure and Decline (180-500 C.E.) "Empire for Sale" (193 C.E.) Dio Cassius News of the Attacks Jerome The Reflection in the Mirror: The Decline of the West Decline and Christianity Edward Gibbon PART IV THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Chapter 8: Icon, Scimitar, and Cross: Early Medieval Civilization (500-1100) Byzantine Civilization The Emperor Justinian (527-565) The Secret History of Justinian and Theodora Procopius The Nika Riot (532) Procopius The Wonders of Saint Sophia Paul the Silentiary Byzantine Spiritual Foundations Heresy: The Threat of Arianism Eusebius The Nicene Creed (325) Eusebius Iconoclasm and Orthodoxy: The Second Council of Nicaea (787) A Western Attitude Toward the Byzantine Greeks (1147) Odo of Deuil Islamic Civilization The Religious Tenets of the Qur'an The Heritage of Islam The Qur'an on Women The Reflection in the Mirror: The Love of Allah "The Love of Allah Should Conquer a Man's Heart" al-ghazzali Islamic Science and Mathematics On the Separation of Mathematics and Religion al-Ghazzali On the Causes of Small-Pox al-Razi The Dawn of the European Middle Ages Beowulf: The Germanic Hero Charlemagne: The Moderate and Progressive King Einhard The Missi Dominici (802) Against the Grain: The Carolingian Renaissance Education and the Scriptures Charlemagne 1066: The Norman Conquest of England William of Malmesbury The Artistic Vision: The Bayeux Tapestry The Norman Conquest and the Sisters of Bayeux Feudalism The Viking Onslaught (850-1050) The Annals of Xanten (845-854) The Siege of Paris (806) Abbo The Feudal Relationship Legal Rules for Military Service King Louis IX Liege Homage Restraint of Feudal Violence: The Truce of God (1063) Ordeal of Hot Iron Chapter 9: The Sword of Faith: The High Middle Ages (1100-1300) The Medieval Church in Ascendency The Crusading Movement Launching the Crusades: "It Is the Will of God!" (1095) Robert the Monk Out of Control: The Fall of Jerusalem (1099) The Protection of Allah Usamah ibn-Munqidh The Historian at Work: Usamah ibn-Munqidh The Infidel: "Superior in Courage, But Nothing Else" The Investiture Controversy (1075-1122) The Excommunication of Emperor Henry IV (February 1076) Pope Gregory VII "Go To Canossa!": Henry's Penance (January 28, 1077) Pope Gregory VII Oath at Canossa (January 1077) Emperor Henry IV The Artistic Vision: The Art of Stained Glass A Martyrdom in Glass: The Murder of Saint Thomas Becket Medieval Monasticism The Rule of Saint Benedict The Vow of a Monk Visions of Ecstasy Hildegard of Bingen The Canticle of Brother Sun (1225) Saint Francis of Assisi Against the Grain Papal Supremacy and Magna Carta "The Rights of Englishmen": Magna Carta (1215) Innocent Protects His Investment (1216) Pope Innocent iii Mind and Society in the High Middle Ages The World of Thought Political Theory: The Responsibilities of Kingship (1159) John of Salisbury The Existence of God Saint Thomas Aquinas The Love of God Saint Bernard of Clairvaux The Dialectical Method: Sic et Non Peter Abelard The Reflection in the Mirror: The Tragedy of Abelard and Heloise A Story of Calamities Peter Abelard The Medieval Woman Whether Woman Was Fittingly Made from the Rib of Man? Saint Thomas Aquinas Whether a Woman Can Baptize? Saint Thomas Aquinas Chivalric Ideals: The Function of Knighthood John of Salisbury The Minds of Women: "Freer and Sharper" Christine de Pizan Chapter 10: The Waning of the Middle Ages (1300-1450) The Crisis of the Medieval Church The Papacy Under Siege Clericis Laicos (1298) Pope Boniface VIII Unam Sanctam (1302) Pope Boniface VIII The Argument Against Papal Supremacy: Defensor Pacis (1324) Marsilius of Padua The Artistic Vision: Giotto at the Creative Edge "The Student of Nature Herself" Vasari Lamentation for the Dead Christ Giotto The Babylonian Captivity and the Conciliar Movement On the Abuses of Avignon Petrarch "The Wolf Is Carrying Away Your Sheep" Saint Catherine of Siena The Great Schism: The Cardinals Revolt (1378) The Council of Pisa (1409) The Council of Constance (1417) The Reflection in the Mirror: The Vices of the Church "Luxury Demands Gratifications" Nicholas Clamanges The Wealth of the Church (1480) Disease and History: The Black Death (1347-1351) "A Most Terrible Plague" Giovanni Boccaccio "God's Hand Was Unstrung" Matteo Villani PART V TRANSITIONS TO THE MODERN WORLD Chapter 11: The Age of the Renaissance The Humanist Movement A Humanist Education Leonardo Bruni Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486) Pico della Mirandola The Soul of Man (1474) Marsilio Ficino Against the Grain: I, Leonardo The Notebooks of a Universal Man Leonardo da Vinci The Life of Florence The Rule of Cosimo de' Medici Vespasiano "This Will Be Your Final Destruction" (1494) Girolamo Savonarola The Prince: "Everyone Sees What You Appear to Be, Few Perceive What You Are" Niccolo Machiavelli The Artistic Vision The Dome of Brunelleschi The Artistic Competition (1420) Giorgio Vasari Mind and Society in the Renaissance Renaissance Manners Book of the Courtier (1518) Baldassare Castiglione On the Nature and Purpose of Women and Men Baldassare Castiglione The Reflection in the Mirror: The Hammer of Witches "All Wickedness Is But Little to the Wickedness of a Woman" Chapter 12: The Reformation Era The Lutheran Reformation (1517-1546) The Indulgence Controversy (1517) "The Cheat of Pardons and Indulgences": The Praise of Folly (1509) Desiderius Erasmus Instructions for the Sale of Indulgences (1517) Archbishop Albert of Mainz "How Many Sins Are Committed in a Single Day?" (1517) Johann Tetzel The Artistic Vision: Saint Peter's Basilica The Colonnade of St. Peter's Basilica Gian Lorrenzo Bernini Salvation Through Faith Alone Martin Luther The Ninety-five Theses (1517) Martin Luther Breaking with Rome (1517-1525) Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520) Martin Luther On Christian Liberty (1520) Martin Luther "Here I Stand": Address at the Diet of Worms (1521) Martin Luther The Edict of Worms (1521) Emperor Charles V Social and Political Aspects of the Reformation On Celibacy and Marriage Martin Luther Condemnation of the Peasant Revolt (1524) Martin Luther In the Wake of Luther John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation (1536-1564) On the Necessity of Reforming the Church (1544) John Calvin Predestination: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) John Calvin Genevan Catechism: Concerning the Lord's Supper (1541) John Calvin Ordinances for the Regulation of Churches (1547) John Calvin The Spread of Calvinism (1561) Giovanni Michiel The Reflection in the Mirror: "Beware of Infection": The Abdication of Charles V "The Wretched Condition of the Christian State" (1556) Emperor Charles V The Anabaptist Radical Reformation (1525-1535) On the Mystery of Baptism (1526) Hans Hut "They Should Be Drowned Without Mercy": Measures Against Anabaptists The English Reformation (1534-1603) The Supremacy Act (1534): "The Only Supreme Head of the Church of England" The Act of Succession (1534) Good Queen Mary (1553): "Loving Subjects and Christian Charity" Bloody Mary: "To Be Burned According to the Wholesome Laws of Our Realm" The Enforcement of the Elizabethan Settlement (1593): "Divine Service According to Her Majesty's Laws" The Catholic Reformation (1540-1565) The Society of Jesus Constitution of the Society of Jesus (1540) Spiritual Exercises (1548) Ignatius Loyola The Way of Perfection: "Prayer Is the Mortar Which Keeps Our House Together" Saint Teresa of Avila The Council of Trent (1545-1563) The Profession of Faith The Closing Oration at Trent (1563) Bishop Jerome Ragozonus The Tridentine Index of Books (1564) The Bloody Wars of Religion (1562-1648) The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572): "A Thousand Times More Terrible Than Death Itself" The Duke of Sully The Edict of Nantes (1598) Chapter 13: "An Embarrassment of Riches": The Interaction of New Worlds Domination and Destruction The Ottoman Empire of Turkey Suleyman "The Lawgiver" and the Advantages of Islam Ogier de Busbecq Women In Ottoman Society Ogier de Busbecq The Spanish Conquest of Mexico The Aztec Encounter: "This Was Quetzalcoatl Who Had Come to Land" Bernardino de Sahagun Montezuma: "We Shall Obey You and Hold You As Our God" Hernando Cortes Human Sacrifice: "A Most Horrid and Abominable Custom" Hernando Cortes The Destruction of Tenochtitlan: "And Their Mothers Raised a Cry of Weeping" Bernardino de Sahagun "We Could No Longer Endure the Stench of Dead Bodies" Hernando Cortes The Devastation of Smallpox Bernardino de Sahagun The Advantages of Empire The Spanish Empire in America The Extraction of Mercury Antonio Vasquez de Espinosa The Silver Mines of Potosi Antonio Vasquez de Espinosa The Barbarians of the New World: "They Are Slaves by Nature" Juan Gines de Sepulveda The Reflection in the Mirror: The "Black Legend" of Spain "They Slaughtered Anyone and Everyone" Bartholome de Las Casas Visions of the New World Utopia Thomas More On Cannibals Michel de Montaigne

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