Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 1: Problems and Sources in History

Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 1: Problems and Sources in History


By (author) Perry M. Rogers

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  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Format: Paperback | 408 pages
  • Dimensions: 183mm x 229mm x 23mm | 590g
  • Publication date: 5 March 2010
  • Publication City/Country: Boston, MA
  • ISBN 10: 0205708331
  • ISBN 13: 9780205708338
  • Edition: 7, Revised
  • Edition statement: 7th Revised edition
  • Illustrations note: black & white illustrations

Product description

This reader is appropriate as a main text or a supplementary text for introductory-level survey courses in Western Civilization and European History and Civilization. Aspects of Western Civilization : Problems and Sources in History, Volume 1, 7/e, challenges students with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. This collection of diverse primary sources explores a wide variety of issues and is organized around seven major themes: the Power Structure, Social and Spiritual Values, the Institution and the Individual, Imperialism, Revolution and Historical Transition, the Varieties of Truth, and Women in History.

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Author information

Perry M. Rogers received his B.A. from San Jose State University, his M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington where he specialized in ancient history with fields in medieval history, and Early Modern Europe. He has been a professor of Roman history at the Ohio State University and has held an adjunct position in the Liberal Arts at the Pontifical College Josephinum for several years. He remains Chair of the History Department at Columbus School for Girls, an independent, college preparatory school in Columbus, Ohio. Rogers's two-volume publications for Pearson/Prentice Hall include Aspects of Western Civilization (7th edition), Aspects of World History, and The Human Spirit: Sources in the Western Humanities.

Back cover copy

The seventh edition of "Aspects of Western Civilization "maintains balanced coverage of historical periods while restructuring several chapters and enhancing coverage in particular areas. It also offers additional pedagogical resources for the instructor and additional guidance for students. "Structural Changes: " There are two new chapters in Volume 2 designed to help students better understand the development of nationalism and subsequent political unification movements during the nineteenth century ( Paths of Glory: Napoleon and the Romantic Movement and Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism ). Chapter 10 ( Fin de Siecle: The Birth of the Modern Era ) has been restructured for greater continuity. There are also two new chapters added at the end of Volume 2 ( The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation and The Dynamics of Change in the Contemporary World ) in order to expand coverage of the Cold War from 1945 to 1990 and to focus in greater detail on events in the contemporary world from 1990-2010. "Enhanced Coverage: " Beyond the additional coverage from 1945 to 2010, several chapters in both volumes have been expanded to enhance the study of important topics: Hebrew prophets (Amos and Isaiah), early Greek literature (Sappho, Pindar, and Hesiod), values in the early and middle Roman Republic (Livy), and visions of the New World (Thomas More and Michel de Montaigne) in Volume 1. Enhanced coverage in Volume 2 includes the American Declaration of Independence; Romantic poetry of Schiller, Goethe, and Byron; perspectives on the slave trade from Olaudah Equiano and William Wilberforce; additional nationalist sources from Alexis de Tocqueville and Theodor Herzl; and enhanced coverage of nineteenth century feminist movements (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Ibsen s "A Doll s House"). Several selections also have been added to the coverage of the Holocaust and there are new sections on Serbian genocide in the Balkans in the 1990s, including the papal response. Coverage of the Cold War focuses on internal rebellion (Hungarian and Czechoslovakian revolutions), the Brezhnev Doctrine, and post-Cold War developments of eastern European and Balkan states. Finally, a new section on The Islamic World and the West concentrates on economic relationships between Turkey and the European Union, and Muslim relationships with France and the United States. "New Feature Selections: " Several new Feature selections have been added to the seventh edition, including a new rubric in Volume 1 entitled The Historian at Work. This Feature introduces students to historiography as well as to critical method, and provides longer excerpts from several of the most important historians of the ancient and medieval worlds (Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy, Tacitus, Josephus, Appian, and Usamah ibn-Munqidh). New Feature selections often focus on the integration of art and architecture into the political mainstream as revolutionary cultural elements (Giotto, Bernini and St. Peter s Basilica, Beethoven s Eroica Symphony, Francisco Goya and Napoleon, Eugene Delacroix and the Greek Revolution of 1820, the social perspective by train during the Industrial Revolution, the insular world of Edvard Munch, and the nightmare visions of Otto Dix during World War I). New Features also include Theodor Herzl and the Zionist movement, excerpts from "A Doll s House "by Henrik Ibsen, Pope John Paul II on the Serbian genocide, and President Barack Obama s 2009 speech to the Muslim world in Egypt regarding a new beginning with the West. "New Pedagogical Aids: " Every effort has been made in the seventh edition to aid both instructors and students in using the text for discussions and class papers. Chapter opening essays and introductions to the primary sources have been reviewed and edited to establish a strong sense of historical continuity, and study questions have been clarified and refined to solicit specific information and offer a broader perspective on the abstract implications of ideas and events. Author Perry Rogers has inserted additional secondary sources on the decline of the Roman Empire and focused some questions on contending ideas under the rubric: Taking Sides. He has edited and modernized translations to clarify ideas and bring older idioms into conformity with modern usage. Study questions have been numbered for easier reference in class discussions and written assignments. "New " Key Events chronologies have been added to each chapter and have been placed near corresponding coverage, giving students a solid historical reference point. New Organizational Tool for Instructors: A "new " Thematic Index is available to "instructors" for download in PDF format to assist in developing comparative ideas across time and, ultimately, to make it easier to teach the course. This Thematic Index groups each primary source by chapter according to the seven themes listed in the Preface. Some sources are cross-referenced under multiple rubrics as application warrants. This superb organizational tool can be downloaded in PDF format from Pearson s online catalog at Select Educators from the menu options and follow the instructions labeled Download Instructor Resources. "

Table of contents

PREFACE PART I: THE FOUNDATIONS OF CIVILIZATION Chapter 1: Civilization in the Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Israel Mesopotamian Civilization The Reign of SargonThe Code of HammurabiThe Epic of GilgameshThe Biblical Flood Egyptian Civilization The Authority of the Pharaohs Building the Pyramids            HerodotusMummification                       HerodotusRamses the Great The Artistic Vision: The Great Pyramids Egyptian Religion and Values Instructions of KagemniThe Pyramid TextsThe Book of the Dead: Negative Confession Against the Grain: The Amarna Revolution           The Hymn to Aten     Akhenaten            Hebrew Civilization Origins, Oppression, and the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt The Creation of the WorldParadise and the Fall from GraceThe Hebrew BondageThe Burning BushThe Mission of MosesThe Departure of the Israelites Covenant and Commandments The Ten CommandmentsThe Covenant Code Wisdom and Psalms Job: â Clothed In Fearful Splendorâ Psalm 104: â All Creatures Depend On Youâ  Prophets: Amos, Isaiah, and Jeremiah Amos: â Let Justice Flow Like Waterâ Yahweh: â There Is No God Except Meâ Isaiahâ s Vision of Everlasting Peace The Reflection in the Mirror: The New Covenant of Jeremiah            â Deep Within Them, I Shall Plant My Lawâ             PART II: THE GREEK WORLD Chapter 2: Legend and History:  The World of Early Greece The Trojan War: Homerâ s Iliad The Wrath of Achilles            HomerThe Death of Hector              Homer Homecoming: The Odyssey of Homer The Adventure of the Cyclops          HomerOdysseus in the Underworld            HomerThe Return of Odysseus                   Homer Early Greek Literature (700-500 B.C.E.) Pandoraâ s Box of Evil                                    HesiodWorks and Days: Advice for the Wise         HesiodGreek Love Poetry                                         SapphoThe Celebration of Athletic Glory               Pindar  Chapter 3: Democracy and Empire: The Golden Age of Athens The Greek Polis: Two Ways of Life â Man Is a Political Animalâ               AristotleThe City-State of Sparta: Reforms of Lycurgus      Plutarch Spartan Discipline      Plutarchâ Happiness Depends on Being Free, and Freedom Depends on Courageâ :            The Funeral Oration of Pericles (430 B.C.E.)          Thucydides The Historian at Work Herodotus        â As Rich as Croesusâ :  The Happiest of Men?  The Persian Wars and the Defense of Greece (490â 480 B.C.E.) â The Spartans Will Fightâ                                              HerodotusThe 300 Spartans at Thermopylae (480 B.C.E.)      Herodotus Greek Tragedy (480-430 B.C.E.) Oedipus the King (430 B.C.E.)          SophoclesAntigone (441 B.C.E.)                        Sophocles            The Athenian Empire, War, and Decline (480â 404 B.C.E.)          The Historian at Work: Thucydides                   Bloodbath at Corcyra The Mytilenian Debate (427 B.C.E.)            ThucydidesThe Melian Dialogue (416 B.C.E.)   Thucydides The Reflection in the Mirror  Hubris: The Conceit of Power            The Trojan Women (415 B.C.E.)      Euripides The Sicilian Disaster (413 B.C.E.)                ThucydidesWomen and War: Lysistrata (411 B.C.E.)    Aristophanes Against the Grain         The Trial of Socrates            â You Will Not Easily Find Another Like Meâ          Plato   Chapter 4: The Age of Alexander the Great           The Rise of Macedon and the Fall of Greece The First Philippic (351 B.C.E.)                                            Demosthenesâ They Speak of Nothing But Your Powerâ (346 B.C.E.)     IsocratesOn the Crown (330 B.C.E.)                                                   Demosthenes Alexander the Great? â Carve Out a Kingdom Worthy of Yourself!â           PlutarchThe Destruction of Persepolis                                  Diodorus SiculusThe Character and Leadership of Alexander         Arrianâ Making Humankind a Single Peopleâ                        Plutarch The Thought of the Age The Philosophy of Plato The Unenlightened Majority                PlatoAllegory of the Cave                             PlatoThe Equality of Women in the State    Plato The Thought of Aristotle Virtue and Moderation: The Doctrine of the Mean            AristotleThe Status of Women                                                             Aristotle  PART III: THE ROMAN WORLD Chapter 5: The Roman Republic: Origins, Breakdown, and Rebirth  Roman Virtues in the Early and Middle Republic (753-150 B.C.E.)             The Historian at Work: Titus Livy                   The Power of the Past The Oath of the Horatii: â One of the Great Stories of Ancient Timesâ      LivyThe Rape of Lucretia                                        LivyThe Courage of Mucius Scaevola     Livyâ Hannibal at the Gates!â                       Livy â Cracks in the Wallâ : The Breakdown Begins (150-100 B.C. E.) The Destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.E.)                           AppianThe Growth of the Latifundia                                                Appian  The Murder of Tiberius Gracchus (133 B.C.E.)                  Plutarchâ Vengeance with Excessive Crueltyâ                                     Sallust                        The Fall of the Roman Republic (100â 31 B.C.E.)             The Historian at Work: Appian                   The Revolt of Spartacus The Civil War (49â 45 B.C.E.) â The Die Is Castâ : Caesar Crosses the Rubicon    Suetoniusâ We Must Trust to the Mercy of the Stormâ                       Cicero Julius Caesar: The Colossus That Bestrode the World? Caesarâ s Reforms      SuetoniusAbuse of Power          SuetoniusThe Assassination of Julius Caesar (44 B.C.E.)      Plutarch The Power Vacuum (44-31 B.C.E.) â A Public Prostituteâ :  The Philippic Against Mark Antony                       CiceroThe Murder of Cicero:  â Antonyâ s Greatest and Bitterest Enemyâ           Appian Against the Grain         Cleopatra:   Queen of the Nile          â The Attraction Was Something Bewitchingâ         Plutarch            â She Was No Weak-Kneed Womanâ                       Horace The Establishment of the Augustan Principate (31-27 B.C.E.) The Powers and Authority of the Emperor                                       Dio CassiusThe Transition from Republic to Principate                                      TacitusRes Gestae: The Accomplishments of Augustus                             AugustusThe Mission:  â To Spare the Conquered and Crush the Proudâ       Virgil  Chapter 6: Caesar and Christ RomanStateReligion and the Mystery Cults The Imperial Cult: The Deification of Augustus      Dio CassiusInvasion of the Eastern Cults                                      Minucius FelixOrgiastic Frenzy                                                            Apuleius The Message of Jesus The Baptism of JesusThe Sermon on the MountThe Good Samaritan The Mission of Jesus Instructions to the Twelve DisciplesPeter: The RockSuffering, Persecution, and the Son of ManThe Final Judgment The Work of Paul Paulâ s Answer to the Intellectualsâ Neither Jew Nor Greek, Male Nor Femaleâ The Resurrection of Christ Conflict and the Development of the Christian Church Roman Imperial Policy Regarding Jews and Christians             The Historian at Work: Flavius Josephus                   Mass Suicide at Masada The Persecution of Christians Under Nero (64 C.E.)          Tacitusâ The Infection of This Superstition Has Spreadâ                   Pliny the Youngerâ A Religion of Lustâ :  Anti-Christian Propaganda                Minucius Felix The Reflection in the Mirror  â Christians to the Lions!â             A Christian Defense              Tertullian The Early Church Fathers First Principles of the Early Church (225 C.E.)        OrigenThe City of God                                                            Saint Augustine Against the Grain           Augustine:  From Sinner to Saint            The Confessions        Saint Augustine The Triumph of Christianity The Petrine Theory           Pope Leo ILoyalty to the Pope: Oath to Gregory II (723 C.E.)            Bishop Boniface  Chapter 7:The Pax Romana and the Decline of Rome            Strength and Success (14â 180 C.E.) Political and Military Control The Imperial Army                            Favius JosephusA Roman Triumph                             ZonarasImperial Patronage                            Pliny the YoungerTechniques of Roman Control        Tacitus The Historian at Work: Tacitus            The Murder of Agrippina            â All Roads Lead to Romeâ  The Glory of the City             Strabo The Artistic Vision: The Roman Aqueduct:  Pont du Gard            The Magnificence of the Baths        Lucian            The Bath House                                 Seneca The Dark Side of Rome        Juvenalâ Bread and Circusesâ                     Frontoâ The Give and Take of Deathâ :  Gladiatorial Combat       Senecaâ Charming Privacyâ : The Rural Aristocrat      Pliny the Younger Social and Intellectual Aspects of the Pax Romana    The Roman Woman â Subordinate Beautyâ                                                    Valerius MaximusThe Funeral Eulogy of Turia                                       Quintus Lucretius Vespillo Slavery in the Roman Empire A Slave Rebellion                                                                  Pliny the YoungerThe Proper Treatment of Slaves                                        SenecaSocial Mobility:  â Once a Mere Worm, Now a Kingâ          Petronius  The Stoic Philosophy â What Is the Principal Thing in Life?â                           SenecaMeditations                                                                    Marcus Aurelius Failure and Decline (180â 500 C.E.) â Empire for Saleâ (193 C.E.)                        Dio CassiusNews of the Attacks                                     Jerome The Reflection in the Mirror:  The Decline of the West            Decline and Christianity                                        Edward Gibbon  PART IV        THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Chapter 8: Icon, Scimitar, and Cross: Early Medieval Civilization (500-1100)            Byzantine Civilization The Emperor Justinian (527â 565) The Secret History of Justinian and Theodora        ProcopiusThe Nika Riot (532)                                                      ProcopiusThe Wonders of Saint Sophia                                     Paul the Silentiary Byzantine Spiritual Foundations Heresy: The Threat of Arianism      EusebiusThe Nicene Creed (325)                    EusebiusIconoclasm and Orthodoxy: The Second Council of Nicaea (787)A Western Attitude Toward the Byzantine Greeks (1147)      Odo of Deuil  Islamic Civilization The Religious Tenets of the Qurâ an The Heritage of IslamThe Qurâ an on Women The Reflection in the Mirror:  The Love of Allah            â The Love of Allah Should Conquer a Manâ s Heartâ          al-ghazzali    Islamic Science and Mathematics On the Separation of Mathematics and Religion     al-GhazzaliOn the Causes of Small-Pox                                       al-Razi The Dawn of the European Middle Ages Beowulf: The Germanic HeroCharlemagne:  The Moderate and Progressive King                      EinhardThe Missi Dominici (802) Against the Grain: The Carolingian Renaissance            Education and the Scriptures            Charlemagne 1066: The Norman Conquest of England     William of Malmesbury The Artistic Vision: The Bayeux Tapestry            The Norman Conquest and the Sisters of Bayeux Feudalism The Viking Onslaught (850â 1050) The Annals of Xanten (845â 854)The Siege of Paris (806)                         Abbo The Feudal Relationship Legal Rules for Military Service      King Louis IXLiege HomageRestraint of Feudal Violence: The Truce of God (1063)Ordeal of Hot Iron  Chapter 9: The Sword of Faith: The High Middle Ages (1100-1300)             The Medieval Church in Ascendency The Crusading Movement Launching the Crusades: â It Is the Will of God!â (1095)    Robert the MonkOut of Control:  The Fall of Jerusalem (1099)The Protection of Allah                                                          Usamah ibn-Munqidh           The Historian at Work: Usamah ibn-Munqidh                   The Infidel: â Superior in Courage, But Nothing Elseâ           The Investiture Controversy (1075-1122) The Excommunication of Emperor Henry IV (February 1076)       Pope Gregory VIIâ Go To Canossa!â : Henryâ s Penance (January 28, 1077)                   Pope Gregory VIIOath at Canossa (January 1077)      Emperor Henry IV The Artistic Vision: The Art of Stained Glass            A Martyrdom in Glass:  The Murder of Saint Thomas Becket Medieval Monasticism The Rule of Saint Benedict The Vow of a MonkVisions of Ecstasy                                            Hildegard of BingenThe Canticle of Brother Sun (1225)              Saint Francis of Assisi Against the Grain         Papal Supremacy and Magna Carta            â The Rights of Englishmenâ :  Magna Carta (1215)            Innocent Protects His Investment (1216)     Pope Innocent iii Mind and Society in the High Middle Ages The World of Thought Political Theory: The Responsibilities of Kingship (1159)         John of SalisburyThe Existence of God                                                                      Saint Thomas AquinasThe Love of God                                                                               Saint Bernard of ClairvauxThe Dialectical Method: Sic et Non                                                Peter Abelard The Reflection in the Mirror:  The Tragedy of Abelard and Heloise            A Story of Calamities                        Peter Abelard The Medieval Woman Whether Woman Was Fittingly Made from the Rib of Man?        Saint Thomas AquinasWhether a Woman Can Baptize?                                 Saint Thomas AquinasChivalric Ideals: The Function of Knighthood         John of SalisburyThe Minds of Women: â Freer and Sharperâ                            Christine de Pizan  Chapter 10: The Waning of the Middle Ages (1300-1450) The Crisis of the Medieval Church The Papacy Under Siege Clericis Laicos (1298)             Pope Boniface VIIIUnam Sanctam (1302)            Pope Boniface VIIIThe Argument Against Papal Supremacy:  Defensor Pacis (1324)        Marsilius of Padua The Artistic Vision: Giotto at the Creative Edge            â The Student of Nature Herselfâ         Vasari            Lamentation for the Dead Christ      Giotto            The Babylonian Captivity and the Conciliar Movement On the Abuses of Avignon     Petrarchâ The Wolf Is Carrying Away Your Sheepâ               Saint Catherine of SienaThe Great Schism: The Cardinals Revolt (1378)The Council of Pisa (1409)The Council of Constance (1417)                                                            The Reflection in the Mirror: The Vices of the Church            â Luxury Demands Gratificationsâ     Nicholas Clamanges            The Wealth of the Church (1480) Disease and History:  The Black Death (1347-1351) â A Most Terrible Plagueâ      Giovanni Boccaccioâ Godâ s Hand Was Unstrungâ            Matteo Villani   PART V          TRANSITIONS TO THE MODERN WORLD Chapter 11: The Age of the Renaissance The Humanist Movement A Humanist Education                                   Leonardo BruniOration on the Dignity of Man (1486)         Pico della MirandolaThe Soul of Man (1474)                                 Marsilio Ficino Against the Grain: I, Leonardo            The Notebooks of a Universal Man             Leonardo da Vinci                        The Life of Florence The Rule of Cosimo deâ Medici                                Vespasianoâ This Will Be Your Final Destructionâ (1494)         Girolamo SavonarolaThe Prince: â Everyone Sees What You Appear to Be, Few Perceive What You Areâ             Niccol� Machiavelli The Artistic Vision        The Dome of BrunelleschiThe Artistic Competition (1420)        Giorgio Vasari Mind and Society in the Renaissance Renaissance Manners Book of the Courtier (1518)                                       Baldassare CastiglioneOn the Nature and Purpose of Women and Men     Baldassare Castiglione The Reflection in the Mirror: The Hammer of Witches             â All Wickedness Is But Little to the Wickedness of a Womanâ   Chapter 12: The Reformation Era The Lutheran Reformation (1517-1546) The Indulgence Controversy (1517) â The Cheat of Pardons and Indulgencesâ :  The Praise of Folly (1509)      Desiderius ErasmusInstructions for the Sale of Indulgences (1517)                                           Archbishop Albert of Mainzâ How Many Sins Are Committed in a Single Day?â (1517)                           Johann Tetzel The Artistic Vision: Saint Peterâ s Basilica The Colonnade of St. Peterâ s Basilica          Gian Lorrenzo Bernini Salvation Through Faith Alone                   Martin LutherThe Ninety-five Theses (1517)                    Martin Luther Breaking with Rome (1517-1525) Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520)     Martin LutherOn Christian Liberty (1520)                                                                  Martin Lutherâ Here I Standâ :  Address at the Diet of Worms (1521)                       Martin LutherThe Edict of Worms (1521)                                                                    Emperor Charles V Social and Political Aspects of the Reformation On Celibacy and Marriage                                             Martin LutherCondemnation of the Peasant Revolt (1524)             Martin Luther In the Wake of Luther John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation (1536-1564) On the Necessity of Reforming the Church (1544)                          John CalvinPredestination: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)             John CalvinGenevan Catechism: Concerning the Lordâ s Supper (1541)           John CalvinOrdinances for the Regulation of Churches (1547)                         John CalvinThe Spread of Calvinism (1561)                                                          Giovanni MichielThe Reflection in the Mirror: â Beware of Infectionâ :  The Abdication of Charles Vâ The Wretched Condition of the Christian Stateâ (1556)   Emperor Charles V The Anabaptist Radical Reformation (1525-1535) On the Mystery of Baptism (1526)                                       Hans Hutâ They Should Be Drowned Without Mercyâ : Measures Against Anabaptists The English Reformation (1534-1603) The Supremacy Act (1534): â The Only Supreme Head of the Church of Englandâ The Act of Succession (1534)Good Queen Mary (1553): â Loving Subjects and Christian Charityâ Bloody Mary: â To Be Burned According to the Wholesome Laws of Our Realmâ The Enforcement of the Elizabethan Settlement (1593): â Divine Service According to Her Majestyâ s Lawsâ  The Catholic Reformation (1540-1565) The Society of Jesus Constitution of the Society of Jesus (1540)Spiritual Exercises (1548)                                    Ignatius LoyolaThe Way of Perfection:  â Prayer Is the Mortar Which Keeps Our House Togetherâ             Saint Teresa of Avila The Council of Trent (1545â 1563) The Profession of FaithThe Closing Oration at Trent (1563)            Bishop Jerome RagozonusThe Tridentine Index of Books (1564) The Bloody Wars of Religion (1562-1648) The Saint Bartholomewâ s Day Massacre (1572):  â A Thousand Times More Terrible Than Death Itselfâ      The Duke of SullyThe Edict of Nantes (1598) Chapter 13: â An Embarrassment of Richesâ : The Interaction of New Worlds Domination and Destruction The Ottoman Empire of Turkey S�leyman â The Lawgiverâ and the Advantages of Islam    Ogier de BusbecqWomen In Ottoman Society                                                    Ogier de Busbecq The Spanish Conquest of Mexico The Aztec Encounter: â This Was Quetzalcoatl Who Had Come to Landâ             Bernardino de Sahag�nMontezuma: â We Shall Obey You and Hold You As Our Godâ        Hernando Cort�sHuman Sacrifice: â A Most Horrid and Abominable Customâ         Hernando Cort�sThe Destruction of Tenochtitl�n: â And Their Mothers Raised a Cry of Weepingâ             Bernardino de Sahag�nâ We Could No Longer Endure the Stench of Dead Bodiesâ                       Hernando Cort�sThe Devastation of Smallpox                        Bernardino de Sahag�n  The Advantages of Empire The Spanish Empire in America The Extraction of Mercury               Antonio Vasquez de EspinosaThe Silver Mines of Potos�                Antonio Vasquez de EspinosaThe Barbarians of the New World: â They Are Slaves by Natureâ             Juan Gines de Sepulveda The Reflection in the Mirror: The â Black Legendâ of Spain            â They Slaughtered Anyone and Everyoneâ              Bartholom� de Las Casas Visions of the New World            Utopia                                       Thomas More            On Cannibals                           Michel de Montaigne