Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 2

Aspects of Western Civilization: v. 2 : Problems and Sources in History

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This reader is appropriate as a main text or a supplementary text for introductory-level survey courses in Western Civilization and European History and Civilization. Aspects of Western Civilization : Problems and Sources in History, Volume 2, 7/e, challenges students with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. This collection of diverse primary sources explores a wide variety of issues and is organized around seven major themes: the Power Structure, Social and Spiritual Values, the Institution and the Individual, Imperialism, Revolution and Historical Transition, the Varieties of Truth, and Women in History.

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Product details

  • Paperback | 480 pages
  • 182.88 x 231.14 x 25.4mm | 771.1g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Pearson
  • Boston, MA, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 7th Revised edition
  • black & white illustrations
  • 0205708323
  • 9780205708321

About Perry M. Rogers

Perry M. Rogers received his B.A. from San Jose State University, his M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington where he specialized in ancient history with fields in medieval history, and Early Modern Europe. He has been a professor of Roman history at the Ohio State University and has held an adjunct position in the Liberal Arts at the Pontifical College Josephinum for several years. He remains Chair of the History Department at Columbus School for Girls, an independent, college preparatory school in Columbus, Ohio. Rogers's two-volume publications for Pearson/Prentice Hall include Aspects of Western Civilization (7th edition), Aspects of World History, and The Human Spirit: Sources in the Western Humanities.

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Back cover copy

The seventh edition of "Aspects of Western Civilization "maintains balanced coverage of historical periods while restructuring several chapters and enhancing coverage in particular areas. It also offers additional pedagogical resources for the instructor and additional guidance for students. "Structural Changes: " There are two new chapters in Volume 2 designed to help students better understand the development of nationalism and subsequent political unification movements during the nineteenth century ( Paths of Glory: Napoleon and the Romantic Movement and Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism ). Chapter 10 ( Fin de Siecle: The Birth of the Modern Era ) has been restructured for greater continuity. There are also two new chapters added at the end of Volume 2 ( The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation and The Dynamics of Change in the Contemporary World ) in order to expand coverage of the Cold War from 1945 to 1990 and to focus in greater detail on events in the contemporary world from 1990-2010. "Enhanced Coverage: " Beyond the additional coverage from 1945 to 2010, several chapters in both volumes have been expanded to enhance the study of important topics: Hebrew prophets (Amos and Isaiah), early Greek literature (Sappho, Pindar, and Hesiod), values in the early and middle Roman Republic (Livy), and visions of the New World (Thomas More and Michel de Montaigne) in Volume 1. Enhanced coverage in Volume 2 includes the American Declaration of Independence; Romantic poetry of Schiller, Goethe, and Byron; perspectives on the slave trade from Olaudah Equiano and William Wilberforce; additional nationalist sources from Alexis de Tocqueville and Theodor Herzl; and enhanced coverage of nineteenth century feminist movements (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Ibsen s "A Doll s House"). Several selections also have been added to the coverage of the Holocaust and there are new sections on Serbian genocide in the Balkans in the 1990s, including the papal response. Coverage of the Cold War focuses on internal rebellion (Hungarian and Czechoslovakian revolutions), the Brezhnev Doctrine, and post-Cold War developments of eastern European and Balkan states. Finally, a new section on The Islamic World and the West concentrates on economic relationships between Turkey and the European Union, and Muslim relationships with France and the United States. "New Feature Selections: " Several new Feature selections have been added to the seventh edition, including a new rubric in Volume 1 entitled The Historian at Work. This Feature introduces students to historiography as well as to critical method, and provides longer excerpts from several of the most important historians of the ancient and medieval worlds (Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy, Tacitus, Josephus, Appian, and Usamah ibn-Munqidh). New Feature selections often focus on the integration of art and architecture into the political mainstream as revolutionary cultural elements (Giotto, Bernini and St. Peter s Basilica, Beethoven s Eroica Symphony, Francisco Goya and Napoleon, Eugene Delacroix and the Greek Revolution of 1820, the social perspective by train during the Industrial Revolution, the insular world of Edvard Munch, and the nightmare visions of Otto Dix during World War I). New Features also include Theodor Herzl and the Zionist movement, excerpts from "A Doll s House "by Henrik Ibsen, Pope John Paul II on the Serbian genocide, and President Barack Obama s 2009 speech to the Muslim world in Egypt regarding a new beginning with the West. "New Pedagogical Aids: " Every effort has been made in the seventh edition to aid both instructors and students in using the text for discussions and class papers. Chapter opening essays and introductions to the primary sources have been reviewed and edited to establish a strong sense of historical continuity, and study questions have been clarified and refined to solicit specific information and offer a broader perspective on the abstract implications of ideas and events. Author Perry Rogers has inserted additional secondary sources on the decline of the Roman Empire and focused some questions on contending ideas under the rubric: Taking Sides. He has edited and modernized translations to clarify ideas and bring older idioms into conformity with modern usage. Study questions have been numbered for easier reference in class discussions and written assignments. "New " Key Events chronologies have been added to each chapter and have been placed near corresponding coverage, giving students a solid historical reference point. New Organizational Tool for Instructors: A "new " Thematic Index is available to "instructors" for download in PDF format to assist in developing comparative ideas across time and, ultimately, to make it easier to teach the course. This Thematic Index groups each primary source by chapter according to the seven themes listed in the Preface. Some sources are cross-referenced under multiple rubrics as application warrants. This superb organizational tool can be downloaded in PDF format from Pearson s online catalog at www.pearsonhighered.com. Select Educators from the menu options and follow the instructions labeled Download Instructor Resources. "

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Table of contents

PREFACE PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF THE MODERN WORLD Chapter 1: The Age of the Renaissance and Reformation SECTION I: THE RENAISSANCE MOVEMENT The Humanist Movement Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486), Pico della Mirandola The Soul of Man (1474), Marcilio Ficino The Political Life of Florence The Rule of Cosimo de'Medici, Vespasiano The Prince: "Everyone Sees What You Appear to Be, Few Perceive What You Are" Niccolo Machiavelli SECTION II: THE REFORMATION ERA The Lutheran Reformation "How Many Sins Are Committed in a Single Day?" (1517), Johann Tetzel Salvation Through Faith Alone, Martin Luther The Ninety-five Theses (1517), Martin Luther "Here I Stand": Address at the Diet of Worms (1521), Martin Luther The Edict of Worms (1521), Emperor Charles V In the Wake of Luther John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation On the Necessity of Reforming the Church (1544), John Calvin Predestination: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536), John Calvin The Catholic Reformation Spiritual Exercises (1548), Ignatius Loyola The Council of Trent: Profession of Faith The Tridentine Index of Books (1564) Chapter 2: "I Am the State": The Development of Absolutism in England and France The English Revolution (1649-1689) The Struggle for Constitutional Government (1650-1660) "The Mortal God": Leviathan (1651), Thomas Hobbes The Instrument of Government (December 16, 1653) Cromwell Denies the Crown (May 8, 1657), Oliver Cromwell The Reflection in the Mirror: Oliver Cromwell: The Lord Protector "To You Our Country Owes Its Liberties" John Milton "Guilty of Crimes for which Hell-Fire Is Prepared", Edward Hyde The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution (1660-1689) "A Force Sufficient to Defend Us from the Violence of Those Evil Counsellors", William of Orange The Bill of Rights (1689) The Absolutism of Louis XIV The Theory of Divine-Right Monarchy The Ideal Absolute State (1697), Jean Domat Politics and Scripture (1679), Jacques Benigne Bossuet The Sun King and the Practice of Absolute Rule "Vanity Was His Ruin", The Duke of Saint-Simon Letters to His Heirs: "Allow Good Sense to Act", King Louis XIV "A Frightful Plot": The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, The Duke of Saint-Simon The Artistic Vision: The Palace of Versailles "A Celebration of Greatness", Jean Colbert Visible Majesty, King Louis XIV Chapter 3: "Dare to Know!": The Scientific Revolution Science and the Church The Heliocentric Statement (ca. 1520), Nicolaus Copernicus On the Movement of the Earth (1543), Nicolaus Copernicus Science and the Bible: "They Would Have Us Abandon Reason" (1615), Galileo Galilei The Reflection in the Mirror: Galileo Absolved: The Resolution "Science and Faith Are Both Gifts from God" (1993) Pope John Paul II The Foundations of Modern Science The Advancement of Learning (1605), Sir Francis Bacon "I Think, Therefore I Am": Discourse on Method (1637), Rene Eescartes Against the Grain: On the Circulation of the Blood (1628) "A Motion, As It Were, In a Circle" William Harvey Principles of Analysis-Induction and God: Optics (1704) Sir Isaac Newton Chapter 4: The Enlightenment and the Revolution of the Mind Thoughts on the Human Condition and Human Progress The Blank Slate of the Mind: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) John Locke Against the Grain: On Crimes and Punishments (1764) "The Greatest Happiness of the Greatest Number", Cesare Beccaria Thoughts on Religion God-"A Cause Contradicted by Its Effects": Common Sense (1770), Baron d'Holbach On Universal Toleration, Voltaire "If God Did Not Exist, He Would Have to Be Invented", Voltaire Thoughts on Education Introduction to the Encyclopedia (1751), Jean Le Rond d'Alembert "We Did Not Live Entirely in Vain" (1764), Denis Diderot Thoughts on Government: The Political Framework Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690), John Locke The Spirit of the Laws (1748), Baron de montesquieu The Social Contract (1762), Jean Jacques Rousseau The Declaration of Independence (1776), Thomas Jefferson Thoughts on Women: The Social Framework Woman: "Especially Constituted to Please Man", Jean Jacques Rousseau A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792), Mary Wollstonecraft Thoughts on Commerce: The Economic Framework The Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith PART II : THE ERA OF REVOLUTION Chapter 5: "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!": The French Revolution Conditions of Society on the Eve of Revolution The Corruption of the French Court, Marquis d'Argenson "Ancient Oaks Mutilated by Time" , Marquis de Bouille The Grievances of Carcassonne Beggars, Rags, and Misery, Arthur Young The Outbreak of Revolution (1789-1791) "What Is the Third Estate?" (January 1789), the Abbe Aieyes Women of the Third Estate: "We Ask to Be Enlightened" (January 1789) The Tennis Court Oath (June 29, 1789) The Fall of the Bastille (July 14, 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man (August 27, 1789) Against the Grain: The Flip Side of Liberty Declaration of the Rights of Woman (1791), Olympe de Gouges Reflections on the Revolution (1790), Edmund Burke The Radicalization of the Revolution (1792-1794) The Fall of Louis XVI (1792-1793) The Execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793), Henry Edgeworth de Firmont Proclamation of the Convention to the French People (January 23, 1793) Reflections on Louis XVI, Mme Roland The Reflection in the Mirror: A Revolutionary Reality Check An Update on the Political Rights of Women (1793) The Reign of Terror (1793-1794) "You Would Exterminate All Your Enemies by the Guillotine!" (December 20, 1793), Camille Desmoulins The Artistic Vision: Jean-Claude Marat: "The Martyr of the Revolution" The Death of Marat (1793), Jacques-Louis David "Virtue and Terror": Speech to the Convention (February 5, 1794), Maximilien Robespierre The Administration of Terror (June 10, 1794) The Execution of Robespierre (July 28, 1794), Durand de Maillane Chapter 6: Paths of Glory: Napoleon and the Romantic Movement The Napoleonic Era (1796-1815) The Will to Power (1796-1802) On the Realities of Power (1796), Napoleon Bonaparte Suppression of the Newspapers (1800) Articles for the Catholic Church (1802) The Imperial Mantle (1804-1806) "The Only Salvation Lies in Hereditary Power" (December 1804), Napoleon Bonaparte Why the French Submitted to Napoleon's Rule (1804), Comtesse de Remusat The Imperial Catechism (April 1806) Exile and Death: The Hero in History Napoleon in Exile: "We Stand as Martyrs to an Immortal Cause!", Napoleon Bonaparte The Role of Great Men in History, G. W. F. Hegel Against the Grain: Beethoven's Eroica: "To the Memory of a Great Man" Portrait of Beethoven, Joseph Karl Stieler Ode to Joy, Friedrich Schiller The Romantic Movement (1780-1830) The Erlking, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Terror and the Macabre: Frankenstein (1818), Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley The Artistic Vision: "The Tyrant of Europe" Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte, Lord Byron The Third of May, 1808 , Francisco Goya Chapter 7: "A World to Win!": The Industrial Revolution Rural and Urban Transformations The Dependent Poor (1795), David Davies "How Are Men to Provide for Their Families?": A Workers Petition (1786) The Urban Landscape The Factory System Sybil (1845), Benjamin Disraeli The Sadler Report: "Not Many as Deformed as I Am" (1832) Child Labor A Defense of the Factory System (1835), Andrew Ure Living Conditions The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844), Friedrich Engels The Impact of the Factory System on Women and the Family, Friedrich Engels Reaction and Reform Against the Grain: The Horrors of the Slave Trade "A Scene of Horror Almost Inconceivable" , Olauda Eqiano "We Can No Longer Plead Ignorance", William Wilberforce Law and Liberty: The Liberal Truth The Iron Law of Wages (1817), David Ricardo The Chartist Demands (1838) A Middle-Class Perspective (1859), Samuel Smiles The Artistic Vision: The Social Perspective by Train Over London by Rail , Gustave Dore Third Class Carriage , Honore Daumier Visions of a New World: The Socialist Truth Utopian Socialism (1816), Robert Owen The Communist Manifesto (1848), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Reflection in the Mirror: A Papal Perspective: Rerum Novarum (1891) "A Yoke Little Better Than That of Slavery Itself", Pope Leo XIII Chapter 8: Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism Volksgeist: The "Spirit of the People"(1815-1850) The Conservative Confession of Faith, Prince Klemens von Metternich Stirrings: The People and the Fatherland, Johann Gottlieb Fichte The Duties of Man, Giuseppi Mazzini The Reflection in the Mirror: The Greek Revolution of 1820 "To Avenge Ourselves Against a Frightful Tyranny" Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1826), Eugene Delacroix "A Moderate Amount of Happiness for All Men", Alexis de Tocqueville 1848: "A Great Outburst of Elemental Forces Had Begun", Carl Schurz The Political Unification of Italy and Germany (1850-1890) Proclamation for the Liberation of Sicily (1860), Giuseppe Garibaldi Address to the Italian Parliament (1871), King Victor Emmanuel II "We Germans Fear God, and Nothing Else in the World": Speech to the Reichstag (1888), Otto von Bismarck Against the Grain: The Zionist Movement The Basil Program (1897) Chapter 9: "Mark Them with Your Dead!": The Scramble for Global Empire "Send Forth the Best Ye Breed!": The Foundations of Imperialism Racism and the Corruption of Science The Descent of Man (1871), Charles Darwin The Standpoint of Science (1900), Karl Pearson For God and Country The Mandate System: Britain's Duty in Egypt (1890) , Joseph Chamberlain "France Must Be a Great Country!" (1883), Jules Ferry Germany's Place in the Sun (1900), Kaiser Wilhelm II The White Man's Burden (1899), Rudyard Kipling "To Seek Another's Profit and Work Another's Gain" "Your New-Caught Sullen Peoples" Education in India: "The Intrinsic Superiority of Western Literature" (1835), Thomas Babington Macaulay Foreign Children, Robert Louis Stevenson "A Natural Inclination to Submit to a Higher Authority" (1893) Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard The Reflection in the Mirror "The Judgment of Your Peers" The "White Man's Face": Terror in the Congo, Frederick Starr The Battle Hymn of the Republic (Brought Down to Date), Mark Twain Chapter 10: Fin de Siecle: The Birth of the Modern Era The Woman Question and Anti-Feminism Seneca Falls Declaration (1848) "Sisters of America! Your Sisters of France Are United with You" (1851) Pauline Roland and Jeanne Deroine Against Woman Suffrage (1884), Francis Parkman "The Brain Weight of Women is Five Ounces Less Than That of Men" (1887), George Romanes Against the Grain: The Independent Woman A Doll's House (1879), Henrik Ibsen "This Is the Logic of Demons!", Josephine Butler "I Incite This Meeting to Rebellion" (1912), Emmeline Pankhurst The Revolt Against Reason Faith, Love, and Hope: "Enough! Enough!" (1887), Friedrich Nietzsche "God Is Dead!", Friedrich Nietzsche The Artistic Vision: The Insular World of Edvard Munch Scream (1893), Edvard Munch PART III: THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND Chapter 11: The Great War (1914-1918) The Road to War The Celebration of War "Without War, No State Could Exist", Heinrich von Treitschke "Blind Obedience to Primitive Instincts" (1910), Norman Angell The Lamps Go Out Over Europe Statutes of "The Black Hand" Assassination at Sarajevo: The Plot and Murder (June 28, 1914) "The Sword is Drawn!" (August 18, 1914), Kaiser Wilhelm II "They Shall Not Pass": The Great War (1914-1918) The Horror of Battle The Battle of Verdun (February-December 1916) The Battle of the Somme (July-November 1916) No Man's Land, J. Knight-Adkin "What Are You Fighting For, Michel?" Against the Grain: Glory in the Skies: The Red Baron "An Englishman for Breakfast" Baron Manfred von Richthofen "On the Other Side of the Boundary" Ernst Udet It Is Sweet and Proper to Die for One's Country Five Souls W. N. Ewer A German War Letter: "One Blood-Soaked, Corpse-Strewn Field" Richard Schiemder The Artistic Vision: The Nightmare of Otto Dix Dance of Death in the Year *17: Dead Man Hill Aftermath: The Light That Failed "This Is the Way the World Ends" A German Soldier Returns Home: "A Complete Stranger" Anna Eisenmenger "If You Want to Endure Life-Prepare for Death" Sigmund Freud Chapter 12: The Russian Revolution and the Development of the Soviet State (1917-1939) The Provisional Government (March-November 1917) "A New, Free Russia Is Born!": First Declaration of the Provisional Government (March 19, 1917) The April Theses (April 20, 1917) V. I. Lenin The Bolshevik Revolution (November-December 1917) The Overthrow of the Provisional Government: "A New Page in the History of Russia" V. I. Lenin "Little Good Is To Be Expected" (November 8, 1917) Izvestia Censorship of the Press (November 9, 1917) V. I. Lenin Establishment of the Secret Police (December 20, 1917) V. I. Lenin The Aftermath of Revolution (1917-1928) State and Revolution: The Transition from Capitalism to Communism (August 1917) V. I. Lenin "Days of Grueling Work" Alexandra Kollontai The Communist Emancipation of Women (1920) V. I. Lenin "Stalin Is Too Rude" (January 4, 1923) V. I. Lenin Stalin's Falsification of History (1927) Leon Trotsky The Development of the Totalitarian State (1928-1938) The Artistic Vision: The Soviet Creation of Belief Industrial Worker and Collective Farm Girl (1937) Vera Mukhina The Soviet Control of Society Industrialization: "Either Perish or Overtake Capitalistic Countries" (1931) Joseph Stalin Collectivization and the Liquidation of the Kulaks (1929) Joseph Stalin "For the Fatherland!" (1936) pravda The Purge Trials: "Traitors Must Be Shot Like Dirty Dogs!" (1938) Andrei Vyshinsky The Gulag: "Stalin's Sadistic Nature Thirsted for Blood!" (1938) The Reflection in the Mirror The Orwellian World "Power Is in Tearing Human Minds to Pieces" George Orwell Chapter 13: Europe between the Wars: Fascism and the Nazi Rise to Power (1919-1939) The Legacy of World War I The Rise of Benito Mussolini "The State's Authority Was Ready for the Grave" (1922) The Fascist March on Rome (October 26, 1922) The Doctrine of Fascism: "This Will Be the Century of the State" "Germany in Her Deepest Humiliation" "I Resolved Now to Become a Politician" Adolf Hitler "Stabbed in the Back" (1919) Paul von Hindenburg The Treaty of Versailles (1919) The Weimar Republic Germany's Unstable Democracy: The Best and Worst of Times The Weimar Constitution: Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Germans (1919) Inflation: "The Boiling Kettle of a Wicked Witch" Lilo Linke Hitler's Response to Germany's Problems The Nazi Program (1920) Nazi Political Rally Announcement (February 1921) National Socialist German Workers' Party Nazi Appeal and Victory Nazi Propaganda Nationalists, Socialists, and Jews (1930) Joseph Goebbels Free Germany! (1932) Nazi Victory by the Numbers: Elections to the German Reichstag (1924-1932) Chancellor to Dictator Decree for the Protection of the People and State (February 28, 1933) The Enabling Act (March 24, 1933) Law Against the New Formation of Parties (July 14, 1933) Law Concerning the Head of the German State (August 1, 1934) The Role of the Family in the Nazi State "Our Fanatical Fellow-Combatants" (September 8, 1934) Adolf Hitler "The Disenfranchisement of Women" Hanna Schmitt Hitler Youth: "Tough As Leather, Hard As Krupp Steel" Adolf Hitler Conversion and Resistance "Now I Know Which Road to Take" Joseph Goebbels "I Had Given Him My Heart" Kurt Ludecke Against the Grain: "Guilty! Guilty! Guilty!" Leaflets of "The White Rose" (1942) Hans and Sophie Scholl Chapter 14: "The Abyss Also Looks into You": War and Holocaust (1939-1945) The Road to War (1938-1939) The Czechoslovak Crisis (September 1938-March 1939) "The Misery of the Sudeten Germans Is Indescribable" (September 12, 1938) Adolf Hitler "Czechoslovakia Has Ceased to Exist" (March 15, 1939) Adolf Hitler "I Bitterly Regret What Has Now Occurred" (March 15, 1939) Neville Chamberlain The Invasion of Poland (September 1939) "Our Enemies Are Little Worms" (August 22, 1939) Adolf Hitler "Everything I Have Hoped for Has Crashed into Ruins" (September 3, 1939) Neville Chamberlain Total War (1939-1943) The Battlefield and the Homefront Alone: "Their Finest Hour" (June 18, 1940) Winston Churchill The Battle of Britain: "So Much Owed by So Many to So Few" (August 20, 1940) Winston Churchill London Aflame! Mrs. Robert Henrey "A Date Which Will Live in Infamy" President Franklin Delano Roosevelt Women in the Factories: "My Hands Are as Smooth as the Steel I Worked On" Elizabeth Hawes The Jewish Holocaust (1923-1945) "The Jews Are the Cause of Our Misfortune!" The Jewish Peril (April 1923) Adolf Hitler "Not a Single Jew" (1932) "I Got You at Last, You Little German Girl!" (1938) Ernst Hiemer The Radicalization of Anti-Semitism (1938-1941) "Jewish Ghettos Shall Have to Be Created" (November 12, 1938) "The Annihilation of the Jewish Race in Europe!" (January 30, 1939) Adolf Hitler "The Jews Are to Blame!" (1941) Joseph Goebbels The Final Solution (1942-1945) "A Complete Solution to the Jewish Question" (July 31, 1941) Hermann Goering The Wansee Conference (January 20, 1942) The Death Camps: "Work Makes You Free" Sites of Nazi Concentration Camps Genocide Rudolf Hoess The Pit Hermann Grabe Gas Kurt Gerstein Mobile Killing Nazi Medical Experiments Dr. Franz Blaha Commandant of Auschwitz Rudolf Hoess Against the Grain: Jewish Resistance Nazi Problems in the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1, 1943) Joseph Goebbels The Destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1943) Jurgen Stroop Manifesto of the Jewish Resistance in Vilna (September 1943) Gotterdammerung: The Final Destruction (1944-1945) The D-Day Invasions (June 6, 1944) The Paratrooper: "He Was Blown Away" Ken Russell The Assault on Omaha Beach: "I'm Hit! I'm Hit!" Harold Baumgarten The Reflection in the Mirror Fiftieth Anniversary of D-Day "When They Were Young, These Men Saved the World" President Bill Clinton The Vision at Sixty-Five President Barack Obama The Funeral Oration of Pericles Thucydides The Aftermath of War The Destruction of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) Harry S Truman Nuremberg: The Crimes of the Nazi Regime Justice Robert H. Jackson The Existential Perspective (1956) Jean-Paul Sartre Chapter 15: The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation (1945-1990) Retrenchment (1945-1960) The Reconstruction of Europe The Marshall Plan (June 1947) George C. Marshall Program for the Welfare State: The Beveridge Report The Retreat from Empire Vietnam: "Determined to Fight to the Bitter End" (1945) Ho Chi Minh British Rule in India (1946) JAWAHARLAL NEHRU The Arab Nationalist Movement and Revolution (1958) Abdul Gamal Nasser The Cold War (1945-1990) The "Superpower" Rivalry The Soviet Victory: Capitalism Versus Communism (February 1946) Joseph Stalin "An Iron Curtain Has Descended Across the Continent" (March 1946) Sir Winston Churchill The Truman Doctrine (March 1947) Harry S Truman Marx Was Wrong: The Flaws of Communism (1953) Theodore White How to Spot a Communist (1955) Currents of Dissent The New Class (1957) Milovan Djilas "The Victory of Communism Is Inevitable!": The Secret Speech (1962) Nikita Khrushchev Prague Spring: The Brezhnev Doctrine (1968) "A World Turned Upside Down!": The Gorbachev Era Against the Grain: Cracks in the Berlin Wall "Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall!" (June 12, 1987) President Ronald Reagan Perestroika and the Socialist Renewal of Society (September 11, 1989) Mikhail Gorbachev Gorbachev's Resignation: "This Society Has Acquired Freedom" (December 25, 1991) Mikhail Gorbachev Chapter 16: The Dynamics of Change in the Contemporary World (1990-2010) Political and Economic Initiatives A United Germany in a United Europe (June 5, 1990) Helmut Kohl The Reconciliation of France and Germany (September 24, 1990) Francois Mitterrand "Czechoslovakia Is Returning to Europe" (February 21, 1990) Vaclav Havel Communism: "Far Away from the Mainstream of Civilization" (December 31, 1999) Vladimir Putin Monetary Union: Europe's Global Role (1998) Lawrence H. Summers Ethnic Strife and Terrorism Ethnic Strife in Eastern Europe (April 15, 1994) Helmut Tuerk Crimes Against Humanity: "Ethnic Cleansing" in Serbia (1992) The Reflection in the Mirror: Balkan Crimes "We Are Witnesses to a Process of Death in the Balkans" (January 12, 1994) Pope John Paul II "We Wage a War to Save Civilization Itself" (2001) President George W. Bush The Islamic World and the West "Fanaticism Is Not a State of Religion, But a State of Mind" (July 11, 2005) Prime Minister Tony Blair "This Is Going to Be Freedom's Century" (March 29, 2006) President George W. Bush Turkey and the European Union (2009) President Barack Obama Against the Grain: The Future of the West "A New Beginning" (June 4, 2009) President Barack Obama "The Burqa Is Not Welcome in France": The Press Conference (June 6, 2009) President Barack Obama and President Nicholas Sarkozy

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