Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment

Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment

Paperback Addison-Wesley Professional Computing

By (author) W. Richard Stevens, By (author) Stephen A. Rago

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  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc
  • Format: Paperback | 1024 pages
  • Dimensions: 188mm x 230mm x 54mm | 1,740g
  • Publication date: 24 May 2013
  • Publication City/Country: New Jersey
  • ISBN 10: 0321637739
  • ISBN 13: 9780321637734
  • Edition: 3, Revised
  • Edition statement: 3rd Revised edition
  • Sales rank: 113,837

Product description

For more than twenty years, serious C programmers have relied on one book for practical, in-depth knowledge of the programming interfaces that drive the UNIX and Linux kernels: W. Richard Stevens' Advanced Programming in the UNIX(R) Environment. Now, once again, Rich's colleague Steve Rago has thoroughly updated this classic work. The new third edition supports today's leading platforms, reflects new technical advances and best practices, and aligns with Version 4 of the Single UNIX Specification. Steve carefully retains the spirit and approach that have made this book so valuable. Building on Rich's pioneering work, he begins with files, directories, and processes, carefully laying the groundwork for more advanced techniques, such as signal handling and terminal I/O. He also thoroughly covers threads and multithreaded programming, and socket-based IPC. This edition covers more than seventy new interfaces, including POSIX asynchronous I/O, spin locks, barriers, and POSIX semaphores. Most obsolete interfaces have been removed, except for a few that are ubiquitous. Nearly all examples have been tested on four modern platforms: Solaris 10, Mac OS X version 10.6.8 (Darwin 10.8.0 ), FreeBSD 8.0, and Ubuntu version 12.04 (based on Linux 3.2). As in previous editions, you'll learn through examples, including more than ten thousand lines of downloadable, ISO C source code. More than four hundred system calls and functions are demonstrated with concise, complete programs that clearly illustrate their usage, arguments, and return values. To tie together what you've learned, the book presents several chapter-length case studies, each reflecting contemporary environments. Advanced Programming in the UNIX(R) Environment has helped generations of programmers write code with exceptional power, performance, and reliability. Now updated for today's systems, this third edition will be even more valuable.

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Author information

The late W. Richard Stevens was the acclaimed author of UNIX(R) Network Programming, Volumes 1 and 2, widely recognized as the classic texts in UNIX networking; TCP/IP Illustrated, Volumes 1-3; and the first edition of this book. Stephen A. Rago is the author of UNIX(R) System V Network Programming (Addison-Wesley, 1993). Rago was one of the Bell Laboratories developers who built UNIX System V Release 4. He served as a technical reviewer for the first edition of Advanced Programming in the UNIX(R) Environment. Rago currently works as a research staff member in the Storage Systems Group at NEC Laboratories America.

Table of contents

Foreword to the Second Edition xix Preface xxi Preface to the Second Edition xxv Preface to the First Edition xxix Chapter 1: UNIX System Overview 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 UNIX Architecture 1 1.3 Logging In 2 1.4 Files and Directories 4 1.5 Input and Output 8 1.6 Programs and Processes 10 1.7 Error Handling 14 1.8 User Identification 16 1.9 Signals 18 1.10 Time Values 20 1.11 System Calls and Librar y Functions 21 1.12 Summary 23 Chapter 2: UNIX Standardization and Implementations 25 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 UNIX Standardization 25 2.3 UNIX System Implementations 33 2.4 Relationship of Standards and Implementations 36 2.5 Limits 36 2.6 Options 53 2.7 Feature Test Macros 57 2.8 Primitive System Data Types 58 2.9 Differences Between Standards 58 2.10 Summary 60 Chapter 3: File I/O 61 3.1 Introduction 61 3.2 File Descr iptors 61 3.3 open and openat Functions 62 3.4 creat Function 66 3.5 close Function 66 3.6 lseek Function 66 3.7 read Function 71 3.8 write Function 72 3.9 I/O Efficiency 72 3.10 File Shar ing 74 3.11 Atomic Operations 77 3.12 dup and dup2 Functions 79 3.13 sync, fsync, and fdatasync Functions 81 3.14 fcntl Function 82 3.15 ioctl Function 87 3.16 /dev/fd 88 3.17 Summary 90 Chapter 4: Files and Directories 93 4.1 Introduction 93 4.2 stat, fstat, fstatat, and lstat Functions 93 4.3 File Types 95 4.4 Set-User-ID and Set-Group-ID 98 4.5 File Access Per missions 99 4.6 Ownership of New Files and Directories 101 4.7 access and faccessat Functions 102 4.8 umask Function 104 4.9 chmod, fchmod, and fchmodat Functions 106 4.10 Sticky Bit 108 4.11 chown, fchown, fchownat, and lchown Functions 109 4.12 File Size 111 4.13 File Tr uncation 112 4.14 File Systems 113 4.15 link, linkat, unlink, unlinkat, and remove Functions 116 4.16 rename and renameat Functions 119 4.17 Symbolic Links 120 4.18 Creating and Reading Symbolic Links 123 4.19 File Times 124 4.20 futimens, utimensat, and utimes Functions 126 4.21 mkdir, mkdirat, and rmdir Functions 129 4.22 Reading Director ies 130 4.23 chdir, fchdir, and getcwd Functions 135 4.24 Device Special Files 137 4.25 Summary of File Access Per mission Bits 140 4.26 Summary 140 Chapter 5: Standard I/O Library 143 5.1 Introduction 143 5.2 Streams and FILE Objects 143 5.3 Standard Input, Standard Output, and Standard Error 145 5.4 Buffer ing 145 5.5 Opening a Stream 148 5.6 Reading and Writing a Stream 150 5.7 Line-at-a-Time I/O 152 5.8 Standard I/O Efficiency 153 5.9 Binary I/O 156 5.10 Positioning a Stream 157 5.11 For matted I/O 159 5.12 Implementation Details 164 5.13 Temporar y Files 167 5.14 Memory Streams 171 5.15 Alternatives to Standard I/O 174 5.16 Summary 175 Chapter 6: System Data Files and Information 177 6.1 Introduction 177 6.2 Password File 177 6.3 Shadow Passwords 181 6.4 Group File 182 6.5 Supplementary Group IDs 183 6.6 Implementation Differences 184 6.7 Other Data Files 185 6.8 Login Accounting 186 6.9 System Identification 187 6.10 Time and Date Routines 189 6.11 Summary 196 Chapter 7: Process Environment 197 7.1 Introduction 197 7.2 main Function 197 7.3 Process Termination 198 7.4 Command-Line Arguments 203 7.5 Environment List 203 7.6 Memory Lay out of a C Program 204 7.7 Shared Librar ies 206 7.8 Memory Allocation 207 7.9 Environment Var iables 210 7.10 setjmp and longjmp Functions 213 7.11 getrlimit and setrlimit Functions 220 7.12 Summary 225 Chapter 8: Process Control 227 8.1 Introduction 227 8.2 Process Identifiers 227 8.3 fork Function 229 8.4 vfork Function 234 8.5 exit Functions 236 8.6 wait and waitpid Functions 238 8.7 waitid Function 244 8.8 wait3 and wait4 Functions 245 8.9 Race Conditions 245 8.10 exec Functions 249 8.11 Changing User IDs and Group IDs 255 8.12 Interpreter Files 260 8.13 system Function 264 8.14 Process Accounting 269 8.15 User Identification 275 8.16 Process Scheduling 276 8.17 Process Times 280 8.18 Summary 282 Chapter 9: Process Relationships 285 9.1 Introduction 285 9.2 Ter minal Logins 285 9.3 Networ k Logins 290 9.4 Process Groups 293 9.5 Sessions 295 9.6 Controlling Terminal 296 9.7 tcgetpgrp, tcsetpgrp, and tcgetsid Functions 298 9.8 Job Control 299 9.9 Shell Execution of Programs 303 9.10 Orphaned Process Groups 307 9.11 FreeBSD Implementation 310 9.12 Summary 312 Chapter 10: Signals 313 10.1 Introduction 313 10.2 Signal Concepts 313 10.3 signal Function 323 10.4 Unreliable Signals 326 10.5 Interrupted System Calls 327 10.6 Reentrant Functions 330 10.7 SIGCLD Semantics 332 10.8 Reliable-Signal Ter minology and Semantics 335 10.9 kill and raise Functions 336 10.10 alarm and pause Functions 338 10.11 Signal Sets 344 10.12 sigprocmask Function 346 10.13 sigpending Function 347 10.14 sigaction Function 349 10.15 sigsetjmp and siglongjmp Functions 355 10.16 sigsuspend Function 359 10.17 abort Function 365 10.18 system Function 367 10.19 sleep, nanosleep, and clock_nanosleep Functions 373 10.20 sigqueue Function 376 10.21 Job-Control Signals 377 10.22 Signal Names and Numbers 379 10.23 Summary 381 Chapter 11: Threads 383 11.1 Introduction 383 11.2 Thread Concepts 383 11.3 Thread Identification 384 11.4 Thread Creation 385 11.5 Thread Termination 388 11.6 Thread Synchronization 397 11.7 Summary 422 Chapter 12: Thread Control 425 12.1 Introduction 425 12.2 Thread Limits 425 12.3 Thread Attr ibutes 426 12.4 Synchronization Attr ibutes 430 12.5 Reentrancy 442 12.6 Thread-Specific Data 446 12.7 Cancel Options 451 12.8 Threads and Signals 453 12.9 Threads and fork 457 12.10 Threads and I/O 461 12.11 Summary 462 Chapter 13: Daemon Processes 463 13.1 Introduction 463 13.2 Daemon Character istics 463 13.3 Coding Rules 466 13.4 Error Logging 469 13.5 Single-Instance Daemons 473 13.6 Daemon Conventions 474 13.7 Client-Server Model 479 13.8 Summary 480 Chapter 14: Advanced I/O 481 14.1 Introduction 481 14.2 Nonblocking I/O 481 14.3 Record Locking 485 14.4 I/O Multiplexing 500 14.5 Asynchronous I/O 509 14.6 readv and writev Functions 521 14.7 readn and writen Functions 523 14.8 Memory-Mapped I/O 525 14.9 Summary 531 Chapter 15: Interprocess Communication 533 15.1 Introduction 533 15.2 Pipes 534 15.3 popen and pclose Functions 541 15.4 Coprocesses 548 15.5 FIFOs 552 15.6 XSI IPC 556 15.7 Message Queues 561 15.8 Semaphores 565 15.9 Shared Memor y 571 15.10 POSIX Semaphores 579 15.11 Client-Server Proper ties 585 15.12 Summary 587 Chapter 16: Network IPC: Sockets 589 16.1 Introduction 589 16.2 Socket Descr iptors 590 16.3 Addressing 593 16.4 Connection Establishment 605 16.5 Data Tr ansfer 610 16.6 Socket Options 623 16.7 Out-of-Band Data 626 16.8 Nonblocking and Asynchronous I/O 627 16.9 Summary 628 Chapter 17: Advanced IPC 629 17.1 Introduction 629 17.2 UNIX Domain Sockets 629 17.3 Unique Connections 635 17.4 Passing File Descriptors 642 17.5 An Open Server, Version 1 653 17.6 An Open Server, Version 2 659 17.7 Summary 669 Chapter 18: Terminal I/O 671 18.1 Introduction 671 18.2 Over view 671 18.3 Special Input Characters 678 18.4 Getting and Setting Ter minal Attr ibutes 683 18.5 Ter minal Option Flags 683 18.6 stty Command 691 18.7 Baud Rate Functions 692 18.8 Line Control Functions 693 18.9 Ter minal Identification 694 18.10 Canonical Mode 700 18.11 Noncanonical Mode 703 18.12 Ter minal Window Size 710 18.13 termcap, terminfo, and curses 712 18.14 Summary 713 Chapter 19: Pseudo Terminals 715 19.1 Introduction 715 19.2 Over view 715 19.3 Opening Pseudo-Ter minal Devices 722 19.4 pty_fork Function 726 19.5 pty Program 729 19.6 Using the pty Program 733 19.7 Advanced Features 740 19.8 Summary 741 Chapter 20: A Database Library 743 20.1 Introduction 743 20.2 History 743 20.3 The Librar y 744 20.4 Implementation Over view 746 20.5 Centralized or Decentralized? 750 20.6 Concurrency 752 20.7 Building the Librar y 753 20.8 Source Code 753 20.9 Perfor mance 781 20.10 Summary 786 Chapter 21: Communicating with a Network Printer 789 21.1 Introduction 789 21.2 The Inter net Pr inting Protocol 789 21.3 The Hyper text Transfer Protocol 792 21.4 Printer Spooling 793 21.5 Source Code 795 21.6 Summary 843 Appendix A: Function Prototypes 845 Appendix B: Miscellaneous Source Code 895 B.1 Our Header File 895 B.2 Standard Error Routines 898 Appendix C: Solutions to Selected Exercises 905 Bibliography 947 Index 955